What is Mouse?

A mouse is a pointing device used to facilitate the management of the graphical environment on a computer. It is usually made of plastic and can be used with one hand.

What is Mouse?

When was the Computer Mouse Invented, What are its History and Types?

It perceives its relative movement in two dimensions, usually with a flat surface on which it rests, projected by a pointer or arrow on the monitor.

Today, it is an important element in computer equipment for most people, and despite the emergence of other technologies with a similar function, such as touch screen, the application has shown that it will still have a useful life for many years.


A Mouse, which we use frequently today, was designed by Douglas Engelbart and Bill English at the Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s. It was later developed in Xerox company’s Palo Alto laboratories.

It has emerged within an important project that tries to increase the human mind by improving communication and ease between man and machine.

The invention of the mouse managed to take a definite step towards the appearance of the first graphical user interfaces or environments. The first model was hand made and patented under the name X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System.

Despite the design of the first model, its basic hardware functionality is the same today.

The first mouse design, similar to a stone, that did not fit well in the user’s hand, had two metal wheels for the horizontal direction, which moved two axes to control the vertical movement of the cursor on the screen as it moves across the surface, and the other red.

Thanks to this tool that provides direct convenience between a person and a computer, unlike the keyboard, ease of use has been improved with less basic information.

At that time, while computing was still primitive, instructions in a programming language were required to perform a simple calculation.

In San Francisco, the first official model was introduced to the public in late 1968, and on April 27, 1981, the first computer was released.

The First Computer Mouse

How Does It Work?

Its main function depends on the technology it uses to capture motion on a flat surface or on a special mousepad and transmits this information to carry an arrow or pointer on the computer monitor.

There are many types, depending on the technologies used in the motion sensor or mechanism and the method of communication between the computer.

The task of the mouse on the computer is to choose one or two clicks, presses, different options that can appear on the screen on any button or button.

To use a mouse, the user needs to move the pointer and press with a click or two for most tasks.

With the advancement of new computers, the mouse has become an important device not only for selecting and operating display objects in strategic games but also for changing the direction of the camera or the direction of a character in the first or third person in computer games.

In most of these games, the buttons are used to trigger selected weapons or objects, and the mouse wheel is used to navigate through objects.

In short, while performing the task of a mouse, it performs the ability to move using the round ball or roller or infrared technology underneath it. In doing so, it uses optical sensors and sends vertical and horizontal digital signals to the computer.



There is a large multi-layered plastic or rubber sphere at the bottom to move the two wheels producing pulses in response to its movement on the surface.

The variant is the Honeywell model, which uses two 90 degree inclined wheels instead of a sphere.

The internal circuit counts the pulses generated by the wheel and sends the information to the computer it processes and interprets using the software.

Mechanical Type


It is a type that does not have a rubber ball, which prevents the problem of frequent dirt accumulation in the transmission shaft and creates fewer problems due to its optical properties.

Today it is considered one of the most modern and practical. You can offer a limit of 800 dpi, because the lower the number of different spots you can recognize at 2.54 centimeters, the lower the number of motion sensors.

Its operation is based on an optical sensor that takes photos of the surface it is on and detects differences between consecutive photos, it is determined whether the mouse changes its position.

On polished surfaces or on some glossy materials, the optical mouse can cause sudden fluctuations on the computer monitor.

Therefore, for this type, it is recommended not to be used on multi-colored floors, which can confuse rotated light information. Instead, it is necessary to use a matte or surface that should not be glossy.

USB Optical Type


This type is more precise and accurate, which is especially suitable for graphic designers and video game players.

It also detects motion by sliding on a horizontal surface, but the optical technology light beam is replaced by a laser with resolutions starting from 2000 dpi, resulting in a significant increase in insensitivity.

Laser Type


The concept of the trackball is not a device that the pointer must be moved manually, so it adapts to delivering a ball so that when placed on the hand, the cursor can be moved with a single finger.

In short, it can be moved with the thumb, without having to move the entire hand.

In this way, the need for effort and space is reduced as well as avoiding possible pain in the forearm due to movement.



In this case, the device does not have a cable that connects to the computer but instead uses some kind of wireless technology.

Wireless mouse needs a receiver that receives the wireless signal it produces through batteries.

The receiver is normally connected to the computer via a USB or PS/2 port. Depending on the wireless technology used, this type is divided into three groups:

  1. RF (Radio Frequency)
  2. IR (Infrared)
  3. Bluetooth (BT)

Bluetooth Model

   1. RF (Radio Frequency)

It is the most common and cheapest type of technology. It works by sending a signal at a frequency of 2.4Ghz, which is popular with mobile or cellular phones, the same as IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g standards.

In addition to having a sufficient range of up to about 10 meters, it is popular due to several connection errors or interaction with other wireless equipment.

   2. IR (Infrared)

This technology uses an infrared wave signal as a popular data transmission medium with the controls or remote controls of televisions, audio systems, or mobile phones.

Unlike the previous one, it has an average range of fewer than 3 meters, and both the transmitter and receiver must have a direct uninterrupted connection in order to receive the signal correctly.

Infrared mice are very low on the market because of their low range.


Bluetooth is the latest technology as wireless transmission (IEEE 802.15.1 standard), which has some success in other devices.

Its range is about 10 meters or 30 feet, which corresponds to Class 2 of the Bluetooth standard.

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