What is Bluetooth? | How It Works and Its Benefits

Bluetooth is an industrial feature for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) that provides voice and data transmission over a radio frequency link in the 2.4 GHz ISM Band.

What is Bluetooth?

What are Bluetooth Features, Versions, and Types, and How Does It Work?

Bluetooth facilitates communication between mobile and fixed equipment. Thus, there is no need for cables and connectors between them. It also offers the ability to create small wireless networks and facilitate data synchronization between personal computers.


The name or term of this technology comes from the name Harald Bluetooth, known as the king that unites the tribes of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.

The Ericsson Company began various research in 1994 to examine the feasibility of the presence of a new interface between multiple devices, including mobile phones and other devices.

Later, in 1999, the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) was formed, which was formed by the merger of various companies such as Ericsson, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba, and IBM.

Later, he joined the SIG group at other companies such as Microsoft, 3COM, Motorola, and Lucent.


This creates a maximum communication channel of 720 kb/s with an optimum range of 10 meters.

The traffic frequency is between 2.4 and 2.48 GHz with broad-spectrum and frequency hops. It is capable of transmitting in full duplex with a maximum of 1600 hops/s, among which it consists of 79 frequencies with a total interval of 1Mhz.

Bluetooth Types

It should always be noted that there is a compromise between data transmission speed, range, and power consumption.

For example, the 4.0 version requires very little power, but at distances of up to 10 meters, it does not even reach a speed of almost 1 Mb/s.

Usually, a maximum speed of 25 Mb/s can be achieved, which causes the range and demand for electrical energy to increase proportionally.

Therefore, companies that are preparing to produce a device compatible with this technology must perform an entire calculation in accordance with its purpose.

Bluetooth 5.0 can also work in LE or EDR mode, but thanks to advanced energy-saving, it can reach 200 meters outdoors and 40 meters indoors.

In short, manufacturers should pay attention to whether the device will be used outdoors or indoors, taking into account the elements that block the connection, such as walls, large furniture, or metal structures, and when calculating the maximum range of a compatible device.

In addition, the design and direction of the transmit and receive antennas of this device, which will be located in the design of notebook computers, should be considered.

You can examine the types of IT from the table below:


Maximum transmission power

Maximum reach (indoors)

Maximum range (outdoors)


Tip 1

100 mW

100 m

200 m

Computers, Laptops

Tip 2

2,5 mW

10 m

50 m

Bluetooth adapters, computers, laptops

Tip 3

1 mW

1 m

10 m

Mobile devices

Bluetooth Versions

In the middle of 1999, the first version of the new wireless standard, BT 1.0a, was launched, with a data transmission rate of 732.2 kbps.

Since its first release, it has been continually improved, with particular attention to security, interference resistance, and connection speed.

Data Speed
Basic Feature
Bluetooth 1.0a
July 1999
732,2 kb/s
First official version
Bluetooth 1.0b
December 1999
732,2 kb/s
General improvements
Bluetooth 1.1
February 2001
732,2 kb/s
Connection and security issues were resolved. The first marketable version was encryption, and there were up to seven simultaneous connections.
Bluetooth 1.2
November 2003
1 Mb/s
Downward compatibility with Bluetooth 1.1. Less susceptible to interference thanks to AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping).
Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR
November 2004
2,1 Mb/s
Three times higher data transmission rates thanks to EDR (Enhanced Data Rate), various methods for energy saving, and Additional use of NFC (Near Field Communication) for pairing.
Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR
August 2007
2,1 Mb/s
It is possible to connect devices without using a PIN, thanks to the Secure Simple Pairing feature.
Bluetooth 3.0 + HS
April 2009
24 Mb/s
There is an additional high-speed channel available that is based on Wi-Fi and UWB (ultra-broadband) technology.
Bluetooth 4.0 LE
December 2009
24 Mb/s
Improved Low Energy (LE) protocol stack with GATT profile for energy saving and 128-bit encryption.
Bluetooth 4.1
December 2013
25 Mb/s
Smaller devices no longer need intermediaries; IPv6.
Bluetooth 4.2
December 2014
25 Mb/s
General improvements.
Bluetooth 5.0
December 2016
50 Mb/s
Considerable increase in the scope and rates of data transmission.

Usage Areas

Bluetooth wireless technology is used in mobile computers, mobile phones, and handsets, and it simplifies communication between these devices and computing devices thanks to short-range radio wave technology.

It also makes data communication much more accessible by ensuring data synchronization between devices and other computers. It allows communication even at disabled distances of up to about 10 meters.

So you can listen to and watch your MP3s or videos from your room, kitchen, or bathroom. You can also create a wireless network connection with your laptop using your mobile phone.

You can synchronize your address books and calendars on your PDA, mobile phone, desktop, or laptop automatically and at the same time.

In addition, its developers include Agere, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia, Toshiba, and hundreds of partner companies.

Bluetooth technology is classified as Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 based on transmit power, and devices in one class are fully compatible with other devices, providing backward compatibility.

In most cases, the active scope of a Class 2 device is extended when connected to a Class 2 transceiver. In other words, thanks to the higher sensitivity and transmission power of the Class 1 device, the signal reaches Class 2 with sufficient energy.

On the other hand, the greater sensitivity of the Class 1 device allows us to receive signals from another, although weak.


Bluetooth wireless technology consists of a radio device responsible for transmitting and modulating the signal, a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) composed of different interfaces, and a CPU.


The importance of wireless data transfer is becoming more vital as it is more practical than wired devices. Among the key benefits of wireless technology to users are:

  1. It provides ease of use by eliminating the need for a wired connection between electronic products and accessories.
  2. It allows file transfers, business cards, calendar appointments, and other transactions between users.
  3. It plays a vital role in the synchronization and transfer of files between devices.
  4. It provides data flow to users by linking to specific content in common areas.
  5. It performs functions such as switches, inputs, and electronic wallets as remote controls.

The Used Products

This wireless technology makes a huge difference in terms of usage width, simultaneously connecting product groups or connecting the Internet and individual products.

In addition to the need to pass interoperability tests by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, this technology can be used in different product groups by software technicians, silicone vendors, peripherals and camera manufacturers, portable computer manufacturers, handheld technicians, car manufacturers, and manufacturers of test and measurement equipment.

Comparison of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth

Bluetooth and Wi-Fi wireless technologies complement each other and offer specific uses.

Wireless technology is designed to replace cables between mobile phones, laptops, and other computing and communication devices within a radius of 10 meters.

A typical router with Wi-Fi technology can have a range of 50m indoors and 100m outdoors.

Today, it uses this technology, which is used instead of cable for devices such as tablets, mobile phones, cameras, speakers, and headphones, and provides high-speed data transfer.

Basically, Bluetooth is defined in the IEEE 802.15.1 documentation.

This defines a global wireless communication standard that enables voice and data transmission between different devices through a secure, international, and unlicensed radio connection.

In this case, the output power to be transmitted at a maximum distance of 10 meters is 0 dBm, while the long-range version itself transmits between 20 and 30 dBm.

How Does It Work?

It works between 2.4 and 2.485 GHz frequencies, such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and transfers data using ultra-high-frequency radio waves.

It typically works symmetrically and can only connect up to eight devices to the PAN network.

One of the essential points to remember here is that while mobile phones use Wi-Fi or the cellular data packets defined by the service providers when accessing the Internet, Bluetooth provides only device-to-device transmission with only airwaves, that is, radio waves, without using any data packets.

Generally, the most effective and productive range of this technology is 10 meters, but even up to 100 meters can be achieved; however, data transfers can be disrupted, and there is poor connectivity.

In addition, it uses the frequency hopping spread spectrum, which automatically changes the radio frequency 1,600 times per second and does not use unsuitable frequencies when transferring data in packets.

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