Microsoft Corporation is a computer company founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. The company, which develops, produces, and licenses the software and electronic equipment, is headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA.
What is Microsoft, Information About Its Establishment, History, and Company
The most used products are the Windows operating system and Microsoft Office application, both of which have an important position in the computer world.
Microsoft’s history is fraught with attitudes that are illegal in some cases. It is the numerous judicial convictions that it has faced in various countries, for example, in 2004, the European Union fined approximately 500m euros for anti-competitive practices in abusing its monopolistic position.
Microsoft (MS) was founded on April 4, 1975, when Bill Gates and Paul Allen were students at Harvard University.
Altair 8800, the first personal computer, was featured on the cover and article of Popular Electronics magazine.
Bill Gates contacted the founders of the new microcomputer, Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), and submitted a proposal for the implementation of the BASIC programming language for the system. Later, MITS agreed to distribute Altair BASIC.
Gates left the university to accept 50% of computer sales in computer language, and then moved to Altair’s headquarters in Albuquerque and founded Microsoft.
The company’s first international office was opened with great enthusiasm under the name ASCII Microsoft in Japan on November 1, 1978. Later, on January 1, 1979, Microsoft Corporation moved to Bellevue, Washington.
On June 11, 1980, Steve Ballmer joined the company and was to replace Bill Gates as CEO of Microsoft.
After the establishment of the company, there would be the first Microsoft products other than BASIC, COBOL, and Fortran compilers. The company’s first operating system was a variant of Unix in 1979.
Acquired under a distribution license from AT&T, Microsoft hired Santa Cruz Operation to develop the operating system to major platforms, renamed Xenix.
Xenix was temporarily awarded to Santa Cruz Operation in 1985, which developed the 80286 microprocessor system under the name SCO UNIX.
In 1980, Bill Gates met with IBM representatives in Seattle and sold the DOS operating system, although it was not yet developed. He signed an agreement with IBM for the distribution of the MS-DOS operating system under the name PC-DOS.
This system, formerly called Q-DOS, was purchased by Microsoft from Seattle Computer Products for $50,000. However, the lawsuit was filed due to a confidential agreement with IBM at the time of purchase.
IBM signed a contract for redistribution by not buying MS-DOS from Microsoft. With the introduction of Microsoft Mouse in 1983, the company stepped into new markets.
The company is managed by a Board of Directors consisting of approximately ten people. Current board members are Steve Ballmer, James Cash, Dina Dublon, Bill Gates, Raymond Gilmartin, Reed Hastings, David Marquardt, Charles Noski, Helmut Panke, and Jon Shirley.
Ten members of the Board of Directors are elected at the shareholders’ meeting every year, and those who do not obtain the majority of votes must resign to the Board of Directors.
In addition, there are five committees on the board of directors that supervise more specific issues.
These committees, including the Audit Committee, which deals with accounting issues with the company, including audit and reporting, the Compensation Commission, which approves compensation received by the president and employees of the company, Committee Financing, which deals with financial matters such as merger proposals, and Appointments and Governance Committee, which specifically addresses various company issues and the Antimonopoly Compliance Committee, which tries to block the company’s practices that violate antitrust laws.
The company also has an executive team for global relations, consisting of sixteen company officials and responsible for various functions.
There is the Corporate Staff Council, which addresses all the basic functions of company staff, including the approval of company policies. Other executives can be classified as Heads and Vice-Presidents of different product divisions, leaders of the marketing division, and IT Manager.
Microsoft Windows was released in August 1985, but it was not stable until 1990. It became the first wide diffusion graphic medium in computers compatible with IBM-PC.
From a technical point of view, it did not offer any innovations as there are similar environments of much higher quality.
A clear example was given by the Apple company since the 1970s. In 1989, Microsoft released its main office suite, Microsoft Office, and office applications such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel.
On May 22, 1990, the new version of the operating system, the new version, a more rational and quality graphical user interface (GUI), and protected mode developed for the Intel 386 processor, was released in Windows 3.0.
Windows 95, a new version of the company’s flagship operating system with a completely new user interface in 1995, was among the new features such as the new Start Menu and improved file explorer, Plug, and Hardware compatibility.
Initially, there were a lot of errors and problems with Internet Explorer, but over time, these have improved significantly.
On August 24, 1995, it launched its main online service, MSN (MS Service Network), to compete with AOL (America Online). The MSN service has become Microsoft’s general brand for online services and has widely used users.
In 2009, MS suddenly decided to cancel the Messenger service to countries where the U.S. holds a trade embargo.
Among the affected countries were Cuba, Iran, Syria, Sudan, and North Korea, which made it clear that they rejected US policies.
While trying to connect to MSN service, users started getting error 810003c1, which prevented them from going online.
The US attitude towards Cuba was a commercial, economic, and financial blockade imposed on the island by President John F. Kennedy.
In October 1995, the United States Department of Justice filed a lawsuit stating that it violated an agreement signed in 1994 by the Federal Court, and requested that the browser sale not be distributed with Windows due to compelling manufacturers.
In 1998, Bill Gates appointed Steve Ballmer as MS President but continued to chair the company’s Board of Directors.
That year, Windows 98, the new version of Windows, was released. It was an update for Windows 95 with new features and compatible with new device types.
A year after the release of Windows 98, Windows 98 SE was released. This new system was not an update for Windows 98, it was a completely new product.
By fixing the bugs of previous versions, Windows 98 SE expanded its compatibility with peripherals and Windows NT, providing greater stability, and provided the ability to share an Internet connection over the local network.
By court order, MS had to sell a version of this operating system that did not include Internet Explorer in some regions where this was not allowed in the previous version of Windows.
On February 17, 2000, Windows 2000 added, among its innovations, the Active Directory feature, which allows organizations to work globally with all their machines to include Device Manager, Windows Media Player, and improve Windows NT compatibility.
The Windows 2000 system is designed for professional use, but it has not been widely used for home use and employees.
For these reasons, on October 25, 2001, MS released Windows XP, which provides compatibility for both home and business computers.
However, Windows XP received a lot of criticism for the security flaws that are found and are less compatible with devices and some programs.
Microsoft’s new business solution was introduced on April 24, 2003, and a Windows Server 2003 system was developed, which was 150% faster than Windows 2000 Server and 250% faster than Windows NT 4.0.
The company initiated legal action against Microsoft by the European Union due to the dominant market abuse. MS then had to market new versions of the Windows XP system.
These new versions were designed as Home Edition N and Professional N but did not include Windows Media Player.
In 2006, Bill Gates announced the beginning of a transition period, appointed as the Head of Software Architecture, appointed the position Ray Ozzie. However, Gates remained as Chairman of the Board and consultant on key projects.
The company officially launched Windows Vista on January 29, 2007.
A year and a half after Windows Vista, the company’s vice president, Brad Brooks, during the speech at the Worldwide Business Conference, acknowledged many of the major errors that Windows Vista has only brought up to a point.
As for security issues, Brooks was very happy with the progress made by the operating system, but the first vulnerability was a bad situation before the product was officially released.
In this system, the security warnings that disturbed the user, battery consumption in laptops, and the performance degradation when using new features were not evaluated.
Windows 7, 8, 8.1 and Windows 10 is a version of Windows that is an operating system manufactured by MS for use on PCs, including desktops, laptops, tablet PCs, netbooks and media center computers in homes and offices.
Agreements Between Yahoo! and MS
On February 1, 2008, MS announced its intention to purchase $44.6 billion in cash and $31 in stock from one of its biggest competitors, Yahoo.
This proposal was made in hard times for Yahoo, who recently announced that 7% of his company’s layoffs are trying to restructure the company.
Soon after, Yahoo decided not to accept the offer, considering Microsoft’s offer to be largely non-valuable Yahoo.
Then, Google signed a search cooperation agreement with industry leaders to beat the MS and Yahoo search engine.
The first of the terms of the agreement states that MS will use Yahoo as the default search engine for 10 years. The second indicates that during the first 5 years, 12% of advertising revenues will be transferred to MS on their website.
Yahoo was a macro directory where everyone was looking for websites. However, shortly after starting his own development, he decided to outsource the search engine called Google.
With this decision, Yahoo lost the opportunity to develop a search engine that competes with Google.
Lawsuits Against Microsoft
Since 1980, MS has been the subject of controversy in the computer industry.
MS initially produces a standard product, and then develops versions of its products that do not meet standards, preventing them from leaving work and using the new version of the product.
These tactics led several companies and governments to file lawsuits against the company.
International software giant MS faced numerous monopoly cases.
The Norwegian company Opera sued and Mozilla joined the case because of the situation in which the Windows operating system did not allow the user to select the desired browser.
The commission accepted the case and filed a lawsuit, but Microsoft’s suggestions were accepted.
In 2007, the i4i company sued MS for a document system that eliminated the need to manually enter format codes and concluded that judge Bill Gates had to pay more than $250 million in cash.
Symantec, another of these companies, sued MS. This is because Windows Vista reveals the industrial secrets the Gates company carried out against Symantec.
Bill Gates’ Largest Opponent
Steve Case is the only person to meet and win Bill Gates in the hi-tech industry. The president of America OnLine (AOL) defeated the MS boss with great success.
AOL, the market leader in the United States and Western Europe, and with its ambitious expansion plans in Latin America and Asia, AOL is the world’s largest Internet power that revolutionizes the way people work, buy and play.
Other Products of the Company
Although MS is generally known for its Windows operating system and Office software, it has also taken important steps in the business world. In addition to these two great products, it also includes some software below;
It provides automation and management of business processes.
It is an e-mail server that includes messaging and calendar service. One of its most important features is its integration with MS Office.
Internet Security and Acceleration Server (ISA)
It is a corporate, multi-layered, and cache Firewall Server.
It enables monitoring of Windows Server systems and .NET applications.
Sharepoint Portal Server
Integrated into Office provides professional tools for collaboration, content management, and implementation of business processes.
It is a database platform that offers business data management tools.
Systems Management Server
It provides system management tools such as remote control and software distribution.
It provides the creation, editing, and management of business projects.