What is a Hub in a Computer Network?

The hub is a piece of network hardware that allows us to concentrate network traffic from multiple computers and rebuild the signal.

What is a Hub in a Computer Network?

How Hub Works in A Network, What is its Task, And What are The Differences Between it And Switch?

The hub is a device with a certain number of ports, and its sole purpose is to receive binary data entering one port and send it to other ports.

In this case, a request for a specific PC on the network is sent to all PCs on the network. This greatly reduces bandwidth and causes network listening problems.

Hub works as Repeater at the first level of the OSI model. That is why it is sometimes called a multiport repeater. In short, it is nothing more than a combination of multiple RJ45 sockets.


Hubs are divided into two categories: Active and Passive. In the active category, Hubs are connected to an electrical power source and the signal sent to different ports is renewed. On the other hand, passive category devices send them to all their connected hosts without raising the signal.


Multiple hubs can be connected to each other to centralize a large number of computers, and this is called a daisy chain.

To do this, you only need to connect hubs using a cross cable, that is, a cable that connects the input/output ports on one end to the ports on the other end.

Hubs usually have a special port called an uplink to connect two hubs using a connecting cable.

Some hubs can automatically bypass or unlink ports, depending on whether they are connected to a host or hub. Daisy can be arranged up to three centers.

If you want to connect more than one computer to your internet connection, a hub is not enough.

You will need a router or switch, or as long as other computers on the network want to access the Internet, you will leave the equipment directly connected as a gateway.

Hubs and Switches carry the connection of a LAN, so these devices seem to do the same job, but they are not.

Although terms like Switching Hubs are sometimes used, both words have a different meaning, but it is necessary to know the Ethernet Protocol to understand the differences and benefits between the Hub and the Switch.


It basically extends the functionality of the network so that the cables can be extended over a longer distance, so this network device can also be considered as a repeater.

The most obvious problem between these devices is that Hub transmits Broadcasts to all ports. So if it contains 8 ports, it sends the same information to all the computers connected to it. The switch only sends Broadcast per port.

The switch can also be considered as a smart network device.

When the switch is started, it usually begins to recognize MAC addresses sent by each port.

In other words, when the information comes to the Switch, it has more information about which output port is the most suitable and therefore does not load a load on its other ports.

Ethernet, due to the nature of the broadcast transmission protocol, the use of this device in the local network may allow information to be hacked.

When it receives information, it raises serious concerns about security as it sends information to all connected nodes.

   Simulation of Ping Between Hub and Switch on Packet Tracer

As you know, Packet Tracer network simulation software is an application developed by Cisco. You can download this software after you register with Netacad or you can directly access the links from our article here.

We prepared and presented a Gif file for you to examine the working principle/logic of Ethernet Hub device in a network on Packet Tracer.

   Hub Logic

As you can see in the network below, there is a hub connected to four computers. In this structure, when you ping from PC0 to PC2, you can see the Broadcast storm because ICMP packets are sent to all connected computers. This will cause huge bandwidth problems in a large network.

Sending ICMP Packages to All Computers

   Switch Logic

The Gif file below shows you the working logic of an Ethernet Switch. After analyzing the above logic, you can see how much address-oriented data transfer of a switch.

Here, while pinging from PC0 to PC, ICMP packets are started to be sent by evaluating only the MAC address of PC2 on the Switch.

Sending ICMP Packets According to a MAC Address

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