Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is one of the world’s largest companies producing x86 compatible microprocessors (with Intel), and one of the world’s leading CPU, GPU, chipsets, and other semiconductor device manufacturers.
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) History and Development
The evolution of humanity and especially electronics in recent years is based on continuous developments in chip manufacturing. Integrated circuits have been included in everything around us, to the point where life without them seems impossible.
The microprocessor is one of the most outstanding achievements of the 20th century. These are bold words, and such a statement a quarter-century ago seemed absurd. However, every year, the microprocessor approaches the center of our lives and occupies one after another at the core of a machine. His presence began to change the way we perceive the world and even ourselves. It is becoming increasingly difficult to overlook the microprocessor as a simple product in a long series of technological innovations.
Despite the microprocessor’s penetration into our lives, we are indifferent to the existence of thousands of small machines that we have met every day unknowingly. Before being so imperceptibly integrated into our daily presence, these little silicon chips have a big impact on appreciating the miracle that each of them really is and the meaning of our lives and lives.
Advanced Micro Devices was founded on May 1, 1969, by a group of Fairchild Semiconductor, Jerry Sanders III, Ed Turney, John Carey, Sven Simonsen, Jack Gifford and 3 members of the Gifford team, Frank Botte, Jim Giles, and Larry Stenger.
The company started to produce logically integrated circuits, later in 1975, it got into the RAM business. In the same year, Intel made the 8080 microprocessor clone using reverse engineering techniques.
During this period, the company designed and produced a series of Bit slicers (Am2901, Am29116, Am293xx) used in various microcomputer designs. During this time, he tried to change the perception of RISC with AMD29k processors and tried to diversify by introducing EPROM memories as well as graphics and video drivers.
This was successful in the mid-1980s with AMD7910 and AMD7911, one of the first units to support various Bell and CCITT standards in 1200 baud half-duplex or 300/300 full duplex. AMD29k survived as an embedded processor and Spin-off Spansion became the leader in the production of Flash Memories.
AMD decided to change the route and focus exclusively on Intel-compatible microprocessors, competing directly with flash memory targeting Intel and secondary markets. Then, on July 24, 2006, they announced that they bought ATI Technologies, paying $4.3 billion in cash and $58 million shares for a total of $5.4 billion.
The modern microprocessor contains about 20 million transistors, and each finished chip is the product of more complex processes than those used in the Manhattan Project to create the atomic bomb.
However, despite an extraordinarily refined production process, microchips are produced at a rate of over 1 billion per year. To put this complexity in perspective, you can imagine that every small microprocessor is as complex as a medium-sized city, including all power lines, telephone lines, drainage lines, buildings, streets, and houses.
None of all the surprising statistics used to describe the microprocessor’s world are more exceptional than this, the total number of transistors that make up all the microchips to be produced this year is equal to the number of raindrops to fall.
AMD and Intel
Advanced Micro Devices is one of the companies that create more passion in the personal computer industry. The web is filled with comparisons between Athlon, PIII, and PIV, which review their performance in almost all possible scenarios, and you can see discussions between Intel and AMD fans on the hardware forums.
AMD was founded in 1969 by Jerry Sanders and seven others, and in its first five years, it is dedicated to redesigning and developing products from other companies and dedicated to offering more warranties for its end product. Until the fifth year, it already had 1,500 employees and a turnover of $26.5 million. In 1976, AMD and Intel signed a license exchange agreement on intellectual property. In 1985, the company became one of the 500 most valuable companies in the world.
In the days of the 386 and 486 microprocessors, AMD had a fairly simple purpose: “Copying Intel products, optimizing designs a bit, and offering more Mhz to launch them as their own products at a lower price.” There were numerous cases with Intel at that time.
Am386 and Am486 were the results of this illegal policy of AMD, which enjoyed great popularity and reached about 30% of its largest market share with them. The stability of the company’s products at that time was the same as that of Intel products.
The departing Pentium broke many schemes within AMD. This micro, superscalar architecture has brought many new features to the separate level 1 (L1) cache, pipeline FPU, 64-bit bus, dynamic branch prediction, and multi-threaded x86 (PC) market that will soon become a must.
Intel patented Pentium from the bottom up, so copying the design was no longer possible.
Due to this situation, AMD worked hard with K5 and included improvement on Pentium, 24KB L1, 8KB for data and 16KB for instructions. The K5s were introduced relatively late (October 1996) and their performance at the same Mhz was almost comparable to the Pentium.
When the Pentium reached 200 Mhz, the K5 did not reach more than 133 Mhz, so it used a number by naming its microprocessors using the “PR” or “Performance Rating” index. According to the company, the K5 PR166 performs like Pentium 166 Mhz.
In this way, users who were unaware of this fact when buying a PR166 thought that they were getting a CPU that worked at 166 Mhz while it was really 116 Mhz. The K5 period can be described as one of AMD’s worst periods due to loss of market share and performance competitiveness with Intel.
After the K5’s failure, he needed a decent design to return to the stage that could compete with Intel, but that would take many years, so he decided to buy NeXGen for about $800 million and optimize Nx686. The company saw Nx686 as a fast and cheap saving, developed it and became the K6.
The K6 was a better and more advanced chip than the classic Pentium and Pentium MMX, very similar to the Pentium II.
Intel had a top of the line with the K6 and K6-233Mhz until it reversed the situation by introducing Pentium II in the summer of 1997.
They then introduced the K6-2 with a minimum frequency of 300Mhz in May 1998 and brought multiple improvements, such as the 100Mhz FSB and AGP x2 and the Super 7 platform, the double superscalar unit to execute the MMX instructions.
Since Pentium II was unable to compete with the K6-2, Intel introduced Celeron, a low-cost market-oriented processor dominated by the K6-2. The level 2 cache of the K6-2 worked at FSB speed, that is, 100Mhz and the L2 of a Pentium II in the cartridge was half the micro Mhz. This made the K6-2s comparable to a PII up to 350 Mhz in general purpose applications. Starting from 350Mhz, while the PII continues to scale in performance, while the L2 was operating at 100Mhz, the stagnant K6-2s could hardly benefit from the improved frequency.
Aware of this problem in February 1999, the company introduced the K6-3 with 256KB L2 integrated into the chip itself. While its performance in general purpose applications was noticeably improved, this improvement in the FPU was not as great as the nature of the FPU operations, as it was less susceptible to cache. The 400Mhz K6-3 competed with the 500Mhz Pentium III in general purpose applications but lost significantly on the FPU.
The K6-3 would be a great success for AMD if it did not have the numerous production issues it offers. AMD’s first L2 on-die microphone and inexperience in the subject were costly. The K2-3’s L2 cache is organized by row and column, like a spreadsheet, like all memories.
If a certain memory area is faulty, all memory becomes useless. This is so if you do not have advanced systems that map the defective areas of memory to another area without errors. AMD did not trust it, and the amount of K6-3 that did not exceed the quality levels was sold as K6-2 when L2 was disabled, no difference between K6-2 and K6-3 when L2 was disabled.
Despite the commercial success of the K6 series, AMD has been missing for years, so AMD launches the processor, the K7, which reveals the most expectations. According to many analysts, K7 or Athlon meant living or dying.
AMD did not have the right to use any Intel platform after Socket 7, so it had to design its own infrastructure. This is a very difficult thing, so AMD has decided to take the rights of EV6, the latest generation of Alphas, the FSB used by Alfa 21264.
Athlon debuted in June 1999 and exceeded all expectations. For the first time, an AMD processor was able to beat Intel’s most powerful chip from any angle. Athlon has been released in Slot A format, which is more than the faster Pentium III running at 500M, 550, 600 and 650 Mhz, 50 Mhz, 600Mhz. Athlon’s performance was about 10-40% on the FPU and 15% faster than the same Mhz III Pentium III in applications using integers.
Athlon’s performance improvements were the result of AMD’s advanced new chip design. Among the notable features is the largest Layer 1 cache 128KB L1, 200 Mhz DDR super segment pipeline seen on the dual-port x86 512KB L2 on the highly advanced EV6 Bus (FSB) running on the 200 Mhz DDR super segment pipeline line to reach high clock frequencies. The first 3-unit x86 superscalar and segmented FPU is the extension of AMD’s first segmented FPU, 3DNOW.
The combination of an L1 cache, 4 times the size of the L1 size of the PIII, revealed that it was a much-improved bus than the GTL of the PIII and a much more detailed FPU Pentium III running at twice the frequency is clearly a lower product.
Intel did not stand idle and responded with a 0.18-micron version of PIII carrying 3 times faster 256KB L2 3x faster than Athlon’s cache. In addition, this new cache of PIII was connected to L1 via a 256-bit bus and allowed many more transfers.
As time went on, both AMD and Intel introduced more Mhz versions of star chips. It was a crazy Mhz race that AMD always won by getting a 50 Mhz version from Intel. This race, designed to reach Gigahertz, was won by AMD.
AMD/ATI: After completing the ATI acquisition in 2006, AMD is being restructured as the only company to offer a range of solutions in all branches of all microprocessors, graphics cards, and chipsets. It is also the world’s largest producer of chips for TVs, consoles and mobile phones, making AMD the biggest competitor for Intel’s semiconductor solutions today.