Intel, also known as Intel Corporation, is a significant player in the tech market. The company holds the title of being the largest ever to enter this industry. It achieved this status primarily through its creation of the x86 processor family. Moreover, Intel has established dominance in the PC market by offering commercial processors. It has solidified its position as a critical player in the industry.
What is Intel Corporation?
Intel is the world’s first microprocessor company. It was initially founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore and Robert Noyce, who wanted to call the company Moore Noyce. Still, the name sounded terrible, so they chose the abbreviation Integrated Electronic.
The company started making memories before jumping into microprocessors. Until the 1970s, they became the leader thanks to the competitive market for DRAM, SRAM, and ROM memory.
On November 15, 1971, Intel introduced the first microprocessor, Intel 4004. This groundbreaking development aimed to simplify calculator design, revolutionizing the industry. Instead of designing many integrated circuits, they created a microprocessor. This single component could perform various actions based on stored program instructions.
Soon after, on April 1, 1972, it announced an improved version of the Intel processor. In 8008, it had a significant advantage. Unlike 4004, it accessed more memory, processing 8 bits. So, with this development, the clock speed reached 740KHz.
In April 1974, they introduced the Intel 8080. It boasted a clock speed of 2 MHz and featured 16-bit addressing, an 8-bit bus, and convenient access to 64k memory.
Afterward, the company revealed Altair, the long-awaited personal computer. Inspired by the Enterprise ship from Star Trek, it carried a price tag of around $400. The processor boasted ten times the performance of its predecessors. With a 2 MHz speed, it housed a 64kb memory.
Intel 8086 and 8088 Microprocessors
But, the personal computer was unpopular when IBM appeared on the market. They set the stage from June 1978 to 1979. The IBM PC took shape with the arrival of the 8086 and 8088 microprocessors. This groundbreaking computer went on to sell millions.
Between the two processors, the 8086 stood out. With a 16-bit bus and clock speeds ranging from 5 to 10 MHz, it showcased its strength. Utilizing 3-micron technology, it housed 29,000 transistors. Additionally, it boasted a most excellent addressable memory of 1 Mega.
The 8088 processor was nearly identical but with an 8-bit bus instead of 16. However, it was cheaper and received superior market support.
The 8086 processor is widely recognized and established. Furthermore, in 2002, NASA was still utilizing 8086 microprocessors.
The first 80286 emerged on February 1, 1982, marking a significant industry shift. It boasted 6 to 25 Mhz speeds, bringing it closer to modern microprocessors. As a pioneering innovation, virtual memory becomes noteworthy. As a result, they can fully utilize the 286 and achieve speeds of up to 1 Gigahertz.
The 286 holds the distinction of being the initial microprocessor. It led to the mass production of clone computers. Furthermore, the cross-licensing system facilitated the emergence of the first IBM-compatible clone manufacturer.
Compaq utilized this microprocessor to manufacture desktop computers. Additionally, they incorporated microprocessors released by Intel/IBM in 1985.
In 1986, the Intel 80386, known for 386, appeared, with a clock speed of 16 to 40 Mhz and a microprocessor with essentially 32-bit architecture.
Also, he mentioned the ongoing production of the 80386 microprocessor. As stated in 2006, Intel plans to conclude its presentation in September 2007. This microprocessor is still used for embedded systems today.
Intel DX Series
By 1988, Intel needed to catch up in developing a simple system to upgrade the old 286. However, the emergence of the 80386SX brought a solution. It sacrificed the 16-bit bus but offered a more affordable alternative. The processors faced challenges due to the rise of the Windows graphics environment. But, user acceptance was crucial for their success.
The Intel 80486DX, a groundbreaking innovation, debuted on April 10, 1989. It featured 32-bit technology and introduced a Level 1 (L1) cache chip. This chip enhanced the data transfer speed between the cache and the processor.
Following that, they launched two extra versions of the DX. Intel introduced the i486 DX2 at 50 and 66 MHz in 1992. In 1994, the i486 DX4, targeting high-end processors, arrived with speeds ranging from 75 to 100 MHz.
Intel 400 Series
In 1989, they launched the 486, which reached speeds between 16 and 100 MHz and was curious. Wikipedia reveals that the reason for choosing “i486” was a legal ban on numeric symbols.
As a result, they named the microprocessor Pentium, which they would release in May 1993. Starting at 60 MHz, these processors reached an impressive speed of 200 MHz. It was a development that no one could have predicted just a few years ago. They also utilized and combined the existing 32-bit architecture with .8 micron technology. It enabled us to produce more units in less space.
The Pentium Pro processor, introduced on March 27, 1995, revolutionized the home environment. It offered a new atmosphere for network servers and workstations, like the Pentium.
At that time, no other processor could match the power of this processor. It utilized a 64-bit architecture and groundbreaking technology, including .32 microns. It enabled the insertion of over five million temporary contents, a remarkable feat.
Within the same package, the processor featured an extra chip. This chip played a crucial role in enhancing cache speed and performance.
They kept the clock frequencies above 200 MHz, starting at least 150 MHz. Intel recently showcased the Pentium II processor. This processor represents an evolution in technology. It is Intel’s fastest release, combining innovative technologies from the Pentium Pro. Additionally, it incorporates MMX capabilities for enhanced performance.
Also, for the 0.25-micron architecture, they had planned a 0.07 architecture until 2011. This development aims to incorporate one billion transistors into the processor and achieve a clock speed close to 10000 MHz, or 10 GHz.
Intel MMX Technology
Although we cannot see MMX technology as a processor on its own, it would be unfair not to mention such a report. It is one of Intel’s most significant steps in the current decade. Furthermore, this architecture will include all processors they produce by mid-next year.
In their analysis, they aimed to develop various programs. They intended these programs to determine the functioning of different tasks. For example, they focused on video, audio, or graphics decompression algorithms. Furthermore, they also examined speech recognition formats and image processing capabilities. By conducting this analysis, they gained valuable insights into optimizing these tasks.
The analysis resulted in many algorithms that use repetitive loops. These loops take less than 10% of the program code. But, in practice, they account for 90% of the execution time. It highlights their significant impact on performance.
Thus, MMX technology was born. It consisted of 57 instructions and introduced four new data types. The designers crafted these data types to handle cyclical tasks with reduced execution time.
In the past, repeating the same instruction eight times was necessary to manipulate 8-byte graphics data. But, the new technology enables simultaneous usage of a single command on 8 bytes. As a result, there is an impressive 8x performance boost.
Intel dominates the microprocessor market. Currently, Intel’s main competitor is AMD (Advanced Micro Devices). Interestingly, both companies have technology-sharing agreements. These agreements allow each partner to use patented technological innovations for free.
Among Intel microprocessors, we can highlight several technologies. These include multi-core technologies implemented in Pentium D and Core 2 Duo processors. Furthermore, there is Centrino mobile technology developed specifically for the laptop market. Moreover, Intel Pentium 4 processors integrate HyperThreading technology.
On June 6, 2005, Intel agreed with Apple Computer. This agreement led to a transition from traditional IBM processors. Between 2006 and 2007, Intel began providing processors for Apple computers. In January 2006, Apple finally launched the first computers. These computers featured laptop and desktop models powered by dual-core Intel Core Duo processors.
Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Intel Corporation, formulated a law. They introduced the law known as “Moore’s Law” in 1965. According to this law, the number of transistors on a chip would double every eighteen months. As a result of Moore’s Law, technological advancements have continued to speed up over time.
This statement, designed for memory devices and microprocessors, aligns with the law. It is a law that benefits the user every eighteen months. It implies that people can enjoy better technology. This implementation has been ongoing for the past 30 years. Furthermore, experts expect its continuation for at least fifteen or twenty years.
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