What is Twisted-Pair Cable?

Twisted-Pair cable is a form of connection through which two insulators pass, in order to have less interference and increase power and reduce interference of adjacent cables.

What is Twisted-Pair Cable?

Twisted-Pair (UTP, FTP, STP SSTP, SFTP) Network Cables, Types and Categories

Cable passage reduces interference as the loop space between the cables that detect the electrical connection in the signal increases.

In the double balancing process, the two wires carry the differential mode, parallel and adjacent signals, typically combined with extraction at the target.

Since both cables are exposed to similar EMI, the noise of the two cables increases each other in this inference.

The knitting ratio, often defined as turns per meter, is part of the specifications for a particular type of cable.

The lower the number of turns, the lower the attenuation.

In most residential telephone connections, where the couples are not twisted, one member of the pair may be closer to the source than the other and therefore subject to slightly different levels of EMI.

Twisted pair cable should use RJ45 connectors to join the different hardware elements that make up the network.

Some cables use only four of the eight-pin structure for data transmission. These are connected to the pins of the RJ45 connector as 1, 2 (to transmit), 3, and 6 (to receive).

AWG is a standardization body for wiring. For example, you can see that a particular wire consists of a pair of 22 AWG wires.

AWG refers to the thickness of the teeth. AWG decreases when the thickness of the cables increases.

The phone line is used as a reference point and is 22 AWG thick. A wire of 14 AWG thickness is thicker and a wire of 26 AWG is thinner.

History

These cables are one of the oldest cables that appeared in the first installations of Alexander Graham Bell in 1881.

This type of cable consists of wires made of copper or aluminum and they are knitted together to ensure electrical properties are stable and also to prevent interference from nearby cables.

This type of cable is used when the LAN is on a limited budget or if it will be a simple installation with simple connections.

This type of cable is not used when a high level of security is required in the LAN or when the transmission speed is high and there are long-distance networks.

Cable Structure

This type of cable is formed by the inner conductor, which is insulated with a colored polyethylene layer.

Under this insulator is another layer of polyethylene insulation, which prevents corrosion of the cable, as it has an antioxidant substance.

Normally this cable is used by pairs or groups of pairs, not by units known as multi-pair cables. The cables are braided to increase the resistance of the cable pair.

If the four pairs (eight wires) are multiple pairs, the colors of the insulator are standardized.

When the cables are already produced in one direction and insulated, they are connected according to the color of each.

They formed pairs join and form subgroups, they join together in groups, the groups lead to the super units, and the combination of the super units forms the cable.

Connection Types

UTP cables form Ethernet segments and can be used as flat cables or crossover cables, depending on their use.

  1. Straight Cable: These cables connect a hub to a network node. Each end must conform to the same configuration standard (568A or 568B). This is because the hub is the center that passes the signal.
  2. Cross-Over Cable: This type of cable is used when connecting elements of the same type, two routers, two hubs. It is also used to directly connect two computers without two routers or anything in between. To make a cross cable, one of the standards will be used on one end of the cable and the other on the other.

Cable Types

   UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)

These are unshielded twisted pair cables used for different local network technologies. Hence, it is cheap and easy to use, but it generates more errors than other types of cables and has limitations to work over long distances without a signal repeater.

UTP Cable

Also, there is no plastic separation tool between each pair of cables that isolates them from other pairs.

It is used in short-distance networks because it is more exposed to noise or interference. If a signal repeater is not used too often, the signal is disrupted and healthy data transmission is not achieved. UTP cables are inexpensive and typically have a characteristic impedance of 100Ω.

These cables were used in the home phone network in two twisted pairs with RJ11 connectors. However, they are also used in 4 pair configurations using RJ45, DB25, or DB11 connectors.

   FTP (Foiled Twisted Pair)

The twisted pairs of FTP cables have a plastic cable and a protective cable based on the non-conductive material and separating the cable pairs.

FTP Cable

FTP also includes an outer shield made of aluminum that holds all twisted pairs together and contains a protective material.

FTP cables are not as good as STP cables, but they are better than UTPs in terms of distance and noise isolation. These cables commonly use the RJ45 connector and their characteristic impedance is 120Ω.

   STP (Shielded Twisted Pair)

The STP has braided insulated copper cables made of a certain number of aluminum grouping twisted pairs inside the protective sheath. STP is resistant to noise due to the amount of insulation around a series of cables.

STP Cable

It is used in computer networks such as Ethernet or Token Ring and is more expensive than the UTP version.

STP cables are used in environments that require higher performance, such as Ethernet standards, where high bandwidth, low latencies, and low bit error rates are required.

These cables are more expensive than others and allow farther distances without a repeater and their characteristic impedance is 150Ω. They are also often used with RJ49 connectors.

   SSTP (Screened Shielded Twisted Pair)

There is aluminum covered protective wire mesh similar to the STP cable type but covering all twisted pairs.

SSTP cables, among other cables, provide excellent protection against high noise and interference and offer the highest performance and the highest performance for long-distance transmission.

SSTP Cable

If there is a high voltage frequency in the SSTP cable, it will use equipment grounding using shielded wire mesh to eliminate it.

These network cables are the most costly cable and are compatible with RJ45 connectors. SSTP characteristic impedances are 100Ω.

   SFTP (Screened Foiled Twisted Pair)

The SFTP network cable is based on the structure of the FTP cable, but this cable contains an LSZH metal braid around it to increase its insulation against noise.

This metal wire mesh will be connected to the ground of the equipment to prevent possible voltage fluctuations.

Although they are lower than SSTP cables, they improve the performance of an FTP cable.

SFTP Cable

Cable Categories

The 568A Commercial Building Cabling Standard specification of the EIA/TIA (Electronic Industries and Telecommunications Industries) association specifies the type of UTP cable to be used in network design, the transfer speed.

   Category 1 > UTP

The audio quality braided telephone cable is not suitable for data transfer, and the transmission characteristics of the medium have a frequency higher than 1MHz.

   Category 2 > UTP

It uses unshielded twisted pair cable. The transmission characteristics of the medium are a frequency higher than 4 MHz. This cable consists of 4 twisted pairs of copper wires.

   Category 3 > UTP

It has a typical 10 Mbps transmission rate for Ethernet. It is used in 10BaseT Ethernet networks with such cables and the transmission characteristics of the medium have a frequency higher than 16 MHz.

This cable consists of four twisted pairs of copper wires.

   Category 4 > UTP

The transfer rate is up to 20 Mbps and the transmission characteristics of the medium have a frequency higher than 20 MHz. This cable consists of 4 twisted pairs of copper wires.

   Category 5 > UTP

This is a Category 4 upgrade and can transmit data up to 100Mbps. The transmission characteristics of the medium have a frequency higher than 100 MHz, and this cable consists of four pairs of twisted copper wires.

   Category 5e > UTP/FTP

This is a Category 5 upgrade. This cable category used in 100 BASE-TX/1000 BASE-T Ethernet networks can transmit data up to 100Mbps. In addition, its transmission characteristics have a frequency higher than 100 MHz, and this cable consists of four pairs of twisted copper wires.

   Category 6 > FTP/STP/SFTP/SSTP

It is an upgrade over Cat5 and can transmit data up to 1 Gbps. The transmission characteristics of the medium have a frequency higher than 250 MHz.

   Category 6e > FTP/STP/SFTP/SSTP

It is an improved version of Cat6 and can transmit data up to 10 Gbps. The transmission characteristics of the medium have a frequency higher than 500 MHz.

   Category 7 > FTP/STP/SFTP/SSTP

It is an improvement in category 6, it can transmit data up to 40 Gbps, and the transmission characteristics of the medium are specified to a frequency higher than 600 MHz.

   Category 7a > SFTP/SSTP

It is an improvement to category 7, this Cat7a, which supports multiple transmissions, can transmit data up to 40 Gbps, and the transmission characteristics of the medium are specified to a frequency higher than 1000 MHz.

   Category 8 > SFTP/SSTP

It is an improvement to category 7a, it can transmit data up to 40 Gbps. In addition, the transmission characteristics of the medium have a frequency higher than 1200 MHz.

   Category 9 > 8 Çift SFTP/SSTP

The media transmission characteristics of the Cat9 being developed have a frequency higher than 25000 MHz.

   Category 10 > 8 Çift SFTP/SSTP

The media transmission capabilities of the Cat10 being developed have a frequency higher than 75000 MHz.

Advantages

Ease of use and installation, low production and acquisition costs, large data transmission capacity in local area networks, upgradeable fast connection, and low latency in LAN networks are among the advantages.

Disadvantages

Their disadvantages include not being resistant to noise or interference, limited bandwidth against fiber cables, limited distance and need for repeater use, and error rates at high speeds.

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