An intranet is a private computer network that Internet technology uses as a basic architecture, and it is the creation of an internal network by corporate companies using TCP/IP protocols that can work on many hardware platforms and cable structures for Internet communication.
Intranet (Private Network)
The basis of creating an Intranet is not only the hardware but the software protocols that are important here. In this way, it has the ability to work with local area networks.
Many large companies plan to back up databases containing important data on central servers while designing their own networks. In this systemic structure, a web server or software that performs a certain service is included in the intranet, and necessary controls are made in terms of security.
Intranet Usage Areas
With the enormous growth of the Internet, large numbers of people in businesses use the Internet to communicate with the outside world, gather information, and do business.
It did not take long for companies to realize the convenience of this communication, and therefore Intranets became more popular. Some companies may not have TCP/IP networks, but there are many benefits of creating an Intranet where all information and resources can be used without interruption.
Their TCP/IP-based networks make it easy for people to access the global network from home or while traveling. Connecting to an Intranet is similar to connecting to the Internet, but the internal working system between these networks is an important complement to companies.
The most basic feature that separates the Intranet from the Internet network is security systems. A company’s internal network is protected by its own firewall and only certain people are allowed access to certain services.
Intranets enable users to work together in a simpler and more effective way, and a program used jointly as group work is an essential component for internal networks.
In this way, by collaborating on projects, secure procedures for information sharing, visual conferences, and production are created.
Using free client and server software, many services can be used on the Internet. In this way, the development and importance of these networks for companies have increased even more.
An intranet is a private business, education, or corporate network that uses TCP/IP protocols for data transmission. The protocols can also be compatible with various network hardware or other network protocols such as IPX.
Employees in this computer network can access wide resources of the Internet, but it is not possible to access the Intranet from the Internet unless the necessary configurations are made.
An intranet is usually made up of a number of different networks that communicate between two networks within a company over TCP/IP. These different networks are called subnet in computer systems.
Proprietary software that allows people to communicate with each other via email and collaborate in production using workgroup software is widely used in the Intranet.
These networks are also used to allow companies to perform business-to-business transactions such as ordering, sending invoices, and making payments. Additionally, there is no need to be online to perform such transactions between two Intranet networks.
A firm can have a home user order a product online by configuring the Intranet to do business online.
When a person orders a product through the company’s website, the information is securely sent over the Internet to the company’s internal network where the order was processed and completed.
Order information sent over the Internet reaches its exact location by routers that examine the IP address in each TCP packet and then forward the packet to the next router. If the destination router is in the subnet, the relevant router can send packets directly.
If the packet sent needs to reach another network outside the Intranet, it is sent to a router that connects to the Internet.
In order to protect sensitive corporate information and to ensure that hackers do not damage computer systems and data, a firewall can be used in the network environment to ensure that only users connected to the Intranet and with the necessary permissions configured can access the relevant network.
Web Services in Intranet
WWW is another of the main reasons for the creation of an Intranet network. WWW allows web resources to be shared across the company network via HTTP or HTTPS protocols.
It allows the creation of web pages consisting of multimedia content such as web, text, graphics, audio, and video.
HTTP allows you to access another resource from one resource on the Web, and in this case, you can easily access a company’s internal network via a web page.
As a result, the realization of such services is based on client and server relationships. Client software runs on a local personal computer, while server software runs on a hosted Intranet. The thing to note here is that client software is not only used by certain operating systems.
Since much higher-speed cables are used in intranets, a high-speed connection is created as all traffic in the network will pass through these cables.
Network Growth and Subnets
When intranets exceed a certain size or have branches in several geographic locations, it will be difficult to manage them as a single network. To overcome this challenge, the network is divided into several subnets, making them easier to manage.
The subordinates of a company that has branches at several different points appear like a single network in the global network. When it is desired to reach a specific subnet of the Intranet network from a remote location, routers perform the forwarding process.
When you want to configure subnets for the corporate network, you will need specific IP addresses set by Internic Registry Services.
These private networks are specified as A, B, and C classes. Class A is better for larger networks, Class C is better for smaller networks. A Class A network can consist of 127 networks and a total of 16,777,214 nodes on the network.
Class B network can consist of 16,383 networks and a total of 65,383 nodes. Class C network can consist of 2,097,151 networks and 254 nodes.
When intranets grow, if there is a department located in another city or country, some methods are required to handle network traffic.
You may need to create a second network as it is impractical to route all necessary data between many different computers in a remote branch office.
An Intranet network is vulnerable to attacks by malicious people for the purpose of destroying or stealing business data. A security breach of the Internet and TCP/IP protocols can expose a business to such attacks.
Therefore, various security measures must be taken, including combinations of hardware and software that provide traffic control. Encryption should be used to authenticate users, scanned for viruses from time to time, and unwanted sites should be blocked.
A firewall can be used in the network environment to make these blocks. In this way, the type and structure of permitted services are checked. In addition, a security measure can be created with proxy servers.
A proxy server allows system administrators to monitor all traffic entering and leaving a network. A firewall on a defense server can be configured to counter and block access to unauthorized services.
Authentication systems should also be strictly implemented in corporate networks, as they are an essential part of a network’s security system.
Using server-based site blocking software, users can be prevented from visiting unwanted addresses. It can also be used with server-based antivirus software to ensure that any file that enters the network is virus-free.
A router should be used to filter out that inappropriate people or bad data cannot reach the network. There may be a special router that examines the IP address and header information of each packet entering the network and is only controlled by the system administrator.
The URL of every request from the Internet can be examined using site blocking software. Each URL analyzed is checked against the database of the URLs of objectionable sites.
If the blocking software detects that some URLs are objectionable, it will not allow the information to pass through the Intranet network. In this case, it checks the URL against a database of words that are objectionable.
As the internet network grows very fast, the databases of objectionable sites are out of date and must be updated every month.