What is the Internet?

The Internet is an interconnection of computer networks that allows connected computers to communicate directly.

What is the Internet?

The Development and History of the Internet

The term usually refers to a specific, planetary, and public interconnection in nature that connects the computer networks of official, educational and commercial organizations. There are also smaller network systems called Intranet for the use of a single enterprise.

Internet technology is a super data source that is a theoretical computer communication target that will allow universal access to quality information that educates, informs, and entertains schools, libraries, businesses, and households.

History

In the middle of the Cold War, on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union broke into the Sputnik 1 satellite when a crisis of concern broke out in the U.S. military command since the North American communications network understanding, it was weak in the face of a possible breaking of a link due to the Soviet attack.

This was born to prepare a new communication system that may not collapse before any node has been disconnected.

The reaction capacity of the network before the main node broke down did not make a real demonstration until the attacks on the Twin Towers on September 11, 2001, ten years after the Soviet Union disappeared.

Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was first developed in 1973 by American computer scientist Vinton Cerf, as part of a project led by American engineer Robert Kahn and supported by the Advanced Research Programs Agency (ARPA).

The Internet started as an ARPA computer network (Arpanet) that connects the computer networks of various universities and research labs in the USA.

The World Wide Web was developed in 1989 by the British computer scientist Timothy Berners-Lee for the European Nuclear Research Council (CERN).

How Does It Work?

The Internet is a set of local networks that are connected to each other through a dedicated computer for each network known as the gateway.

Interconnections between the gateways are made through various communication channels, including telephone lines, fiber optics, and radio connections.

Additional networks can be created by connecting new devices. Information to be sent to a remote machine is tagged with the computer’s address on that machine.

Different types of services provided by the Internet use different address formats.

One of the formats is known as dotted decimal, for example; 145.95.34.22.

Another format describes the name of the target computer and other information for routing, for example; “www.sysnettechsolutions.com“.

Networks can use suffixes indicating the country, for example; For USA (.us).

Suffixes can also determine the type of organization to which the computer network belongs. An educational institution (.edu) can be a military center (.mil), a government agency (.gov), or a non-profit organization (.org).

The information is routed from the router to the router until it reaches the local network containing the target machine. Since the Internet does not have central control, there is no individual computer directing the flow of information.

This separates the Internet and similar network systems from other computer network services such as CompuServe, America Online or Microsoft Network.

Internet Protocol

IP is the basic software used to control the network system.

This protocol determines how gateway computers direct information from the sending computer to the receiving computer.

Another protocol, called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), checks if the information has reached the destination computer or causes it to be resent.

Services

Network systems such as the Internet allow the exchange of information between computers, and many services that take advantage of this functionality have already been created. These;

   Telnet

Lets you connect to a computer from another location. You can refer to databases or access library catalogs via Telnet.

Once the connection is established through this service, the computer acts as another terminal of the remote computer and therefore can run all its applications.

   FTP

It provides file transfer between a local computer and a remote computer. FTP servers are shared files where files can be stored and other files can be removed.

   Gopher

It allows you to read and interpret files on remote computers. It is a simple system that facilitates access to Internet resources through menus.

The newest and most important Internet service, which is the grandson of the Gopher service, is HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).

HTTP can read and interpret not only text, image, audio or video data, but also files on a machine.

HTTP is the information transfer protocol that forms the basis of the distributed information collection called the World Wide Web.

   World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (also known as the Web or WWW) is a collection of files called Web sites or Web pages that contain information in text, graphics, audio, and video formats, and links to other files.

The files are identified by a universal resource finder (URL), which specifies the transfer protocol, the address, and the filename of the machine.

Computer programs called browsers, such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or Internet Explorer, use the HTTP or HTTPS protocol to receive these files.

New types of files are constantly being developed for WWW, such as animation or virtual reality (VRML). Until recently, they had to be specially programmed to handle the new file type.

New programming languages ​​allow browsers to install utilities that can change these new types of information.

   Electronic Messaging (Email)

It is one of the most versatile communication tools among people on the Internet. It allows users to send their network messages directly and almost instantly, regardless of the distances separating them.

They are systems that allow the distribution of messages to a group of people dealing with a particular subject. Lists can be managed from a central server or not publicly or privately controlled.

Talk, IRC (Internet Transfer Chat) allows direct communication between two or more people connected to the network. It can have an adverse effect when used for things that are not necessary. Its maximum expression is video conferences, which allow participants to visual and vocal contact.

Connection Types

   RTC (Switched Telephone Network)

Also known as Basic Telephone Network (RTB), it is an original and normal analog network. The connection is made using an ISDN call.

   ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

It sends the information digitally encoded, so it needs a network adapter, modem, or ISDN card that adjusts the speed between the PC and the line.

   ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

It is a technology that converts it to a high-speed line based on the copper pair of the normal telephone line. It ensures that voice and data are transmitted simultaneously over the same telephone line.

   Satellite

In recent years, more and more companies are using this transmission system to deploy it.

   Wireless Networks

It is a technology standardized by IEEE that enables mounting local networks without using infrared or radiofrequency waves. For example; Wi-Fi, Li-Fi, and 2016 Loon Project.

   LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution System)

It is a point-to-multipoint communication system that uses radio waves at high frequencies around 28 or 40 GHz. Transmitted signals can consist of voice, data, internet, and video.

Social Effects

Although the majority of the world’s population does not have Internet access, computer interaction is still in its infancy, it has significantly changed the world we are in, has eliminated time and distance barriers and allowed people to share information and work together.

Progress towards the information highway will continue at a faster pace. The available content grows quickly, making it easy to find any information on the Internet.

New applications will enable economic transactions to be done safely and will present new opportunities for trade.

New technologies will increase the speed of information transfer, which will enable direct transfer of optional leisure time.

It is possible to replace the current general television broadcasts with special broadcasts so that each household receives a specially designed signal for their tastes and can see what they want at a particular time.

Censorship Act

With the growth of the Internet, important questions about censorship were raised.

The increase in web pages with text and graphics that worsen the minority, promote racism, or expose pornographic materials has prompted Internet providers to voluntarily call for specific criteria.

In 1996, the Hesitation Law on Communications was adopted in the United States, which made it a crime for a service provider to deliver material classified as inappropriate on the Internet.

The ruling immediately sparked an angry response from users, industry experts, and groups in favor of civil liberties that opposed this censorship. The law was challenged by the federal judge’s committee in June 1996 and was later suspended.

The committee described the Internet as a planetary speech that deserves maximum protection against government intervention.

Many network services cannot continually monitor and control what people are saying on the Internet through their servers, even if countries like the US have set up mechanisms to monitor the Network.

Legal issues arise when dealing with information from other countries; even if transnational control is possible, global behavior and ethical criteria should be determined.

The US government sees the breaking of the computer blockage set up on the Internet by some governments as a priority in its sovereignty strategy to prevent destabilizing messages from coming from abroad.

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