One way to secure a computer network is by using encryption. Thus, in order to ensure the security of the data, it is ensured that it can be changed so that only someone who has access to certain codes for decryption can understand.
What is an Encryption Algorithm, and What are its Types?
Encryption is used to store and send a password to ensure that a private network is protected from unauthorized persons. It is also used when sending data between very secure private networks and the Internet.
In this way, it is ensured that the credit card information is protected during the transmission of a commerce service made over the Internet.
Keys, on the other hand, are an essential component of encryption and their main purpose is to produce complex mathematical formulas used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
If someone encrypts a message, only another person with the full key can decrypt the message. In this case, there are two basic key systems, namely the private key and the public key. An algorithm is used to perform an iteration function.
This process generates a message digest specific to the message. The message digest is encrypted with the sender’s private key, resulting in a fingerprint.
DES (Data Encryption Standard) is a secret key system and has no private key component. The sender and receiver know the secret key of the code, so they are not suitable for conducting Internet business.
RSA is a public key system that uses key pairs to encrypt and decrypt messages. In this system, each person has a public key with a public key and a private key stored only on the computer.
Data encrypted with someone’s private key can only be decrypted with the public key. Therefore, RSA needs a public key, as the public key cannot be used without the private key. Encryption methods such as MD5 and RSA are used to generate key pairs.
The main purpose of encryption is to protect the confidentiality of digital data stored in computer systems or transmitted over the Internet or another computer network.
In addition to security, the data encryption process often stems from the need to meet compliance standards. Various corporate firms attach great importance to encrypting sensitive data to prevent unauthorized third parties from accessing data.
An encryption algorithm is a component used for the security of transporting data electronically. When using algorithms for encryption purposes, mathematical operations are performed and different block ciphers are used to encrypt electronic data or numbers.
Encryption algorithms help prevent hackers from illegally obtaining electronic financial information. These algorithms are part of a company’s risk management and are often found in software applications.
It helps the process of converting plain text to encrypted text and then to plain text to protect electronic data when sending over networks. The encryption of the data ensures that it cannot be accessed by hackers or other unauthorized users.
Some encryption algorithms may be stronger than others, but since most of them are based on mathematical formulas, they must continue to be improved with the advancement of technology. Encryption algorithms vary in length, so the strength of an algorithm is usually proportional to its length.
In the symmetric method, the sender encrypts the message with a key and must use the same key to decrypt it.
These algorithms are fast and provide efficient encryption and decryption with large keys, but their only drawback is key security. The sender encrypts the message with the key so that no one can decrypt it without it.
Examples of symmetric algorithms include Blowfish, IDEA, and DES.
The first operating system of the asymmetric method is that the sender encrypts the message with a common key known to everyone. The recipient only needs the key they have to decrypt the message. This guarantees data privacy, anyone can encrypt it, but only the person with the private key can decrypt it.
The second working system is that the sender encrypts the message with a private key known only to him. All recipients can decrypt this message with their own private key. The rationale for this is that it is used to ensure reality, not to hide information.
In the second method, anyone can easily access information but cannot know where it came from, so asymmetric is used to verify the authenticity of digital signatures.
Examples of asymmetric algorithms are DSA, RSA, and Diffie-Hellman.
Internet connections take advantage of the lightness of one and the strength of the other using a mix of the two encryption types above.
The purpose of secure communication protocols such as HTTPS is to encrypt messages using a symmetric algorithm so that less volume encrypted messages are read quickly.
Commonly Used Types of Encryption Algorithms
3DES is the first standard of the DES algorithm. DES is a legacy method of symmetric key data encryption and has been deprecated due to security vulnerabilities.
DES is used to protect unclassified but confidential data. So it was widely used by companies with confidential information.
DES encrypts the data by grouping it into blocks and simultaneously encoding it by applying the key to the entire block of 64 bits rather than bit by bit.
In DES, the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt the message, so decoding takes the same steps in the opposite direction.
The RSA algorithm is asymmetric with respect to DES, which means the system does not use the same key.
The algorithm works by generating a public and private key so that the public and private keys are not the same but are linked to each other. There is no difference for the Encryption method as to which key and which one is used for decryption.
While both private and public keys are used to encrypt the message, the opposite key must be applied to decrypt it.
The high level of security provided by RSA is achieved by the difficulty of factoring long strings by factoring two large prime numbers.
RSA is used for SSH authentication, encryption, and to protect sensitive data across multiple browsers.
The AES algorithm is a symmetric algorithm, and its easy implementation on hardware and constrained environments are more preferred.
AES is highly attack-resistant, providing fast solutions thanks to its high computational calibration and memory efficiency. It is widely preferred due to its flexibility, easy applicability, and low cost.
The applicable number of turns specification is 10 for 128-bit keys, 12 for 192-bit keys, and 14 for 256-bit keys.
AES encryption uses table-based data exchange with rows and columns, and the replacement rule is determined by the different parts of the key.
In cryptography, RC4 is the most widely used software data traffic encryption and is used in protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer and WEP.
While it stands out with its simplicity, applicability, and speed in software, it also has weaknesses against its use in new systems. It is particularly vulnerable when the beginning of the escape key sequence is not thrown or when nonrandom or associated keys are used.
RC4 generates a pseudo-random bitstream. As with any stream cipher, they can be used in combination with the plaintext using special bits, and also perform the same steps in the decoding process.
To generate the keychain, it uses a secret internal key that consists of two parts, a 256-byte exchange, and two 8-bit index trio.
The exchange process is initiated using a key programming algorithm with a key length ranging from 40 to 256 bits. Once this process is complete, the bitstream is generated using the so-called random generation algorithm.
Like the DES algorithm, Blowfish’s technology is symmetrical. Blowfish uses a private key for an entire data block.
The blocks are 64 bits in size and the key length can range from a 32 bit key to a 448-bit key. For each key change, it provides preprocessing that requires resources equivalent to encrypting 4KB text.
Blowfish is not patented and can be used free of charge thanks to its flexibility, speed, and safety. For this reason, Blowfish is a very popular algorithm in cryptographic software.
It uses block methods like Twofish, Blowfish, and is symmetrical. Hence, Twofish uses the same key for encryption and decoding.
Twofish divides the message into 128-bit blocks and applies the key to all blocks simultaneously, using the keys only for data encryption of up to 256 bits.
The Twofish algorithm is popular for software and devices with low computing resources such as SIM cards. It is fast, flexible, and the encryption method is also non-proprietary and free to use.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Symmetrical is much faster. Asymmetrical is much slower.
The symmetry is not that secure because issuing the key makes it very vulnerable. Asymmetric has the ability to securely transmit public keys to third parties.
Key management is also an advantage when used asymmetrically, only one key pair per user is required to encrypt messages for all other users. On the other hand, with symmetric, as the number of users increases, the number of keys increases.
The first method of defending a local network’s private data is to use password protection. It helps to develop various security techniques using the encryption system and to keep passwords safe.
In addition, it is recommended to change passwords frequently for employees in corporate companies. When setting a password, it must be created from a structure that cannot be easily guessed and does not contain common words.
Authentication verifies that the person who knows the password and logs into the system is the authorized person for the service to be used. The server encrypts the user-entered password using encryption technology.
Verifies whether the user has access to the system by comparing the user’s encrypted password with the encrypted password in the table. If the entered password does not match on a table saved in the system, it is understood that the user does not have permission.
Passwords and usernames of people in a network are stored on a server. Depending on the password authentication technique used, the file may be encrypted.
As a method of identifying a user, the PAP protocol can be used. PAP does not assign a password, only encrypts the password list on the server. Whenever someone wants to access a network resource protected with a password, a username and password are requested and the username and password are then sent to the server.
If the CHAP protocol is used instead of PAP, an unencrypted password table is created, and when a person logs on to the system, a random key is generated that is sent to the user for the server to encrypt their password.
The user’s computer uses this key to encrypt their password, the password is then sent back to the server. The server examines the password table for the random key and encrypts the password with the key sent to the user.
The server then verifies the user’s login permission by comparing the encrypted password with the encrypted password created with the user’s password. The most important function of CHAP is that the server continues to query the user’s computer throughout the session.
Therefore, CHAP avoids the vulnerability by sending different queries that need to be encrypted and returned by the computer.
The session cannot be easily hacked by a hacker because the computer periodically sends these queries. Therefore, whatever type of password systems are used, whether the password table is encrypted or not, the important thing is to protect the password table.
As a result, the file must be protected from FTP access and can only be accessed by administrator control.