What is DHCP? | How to Enable DHCP on Windows 10

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an assistance that assigns an IP address, DNS address, gateway IP number, and subnet mask to all computers on the PC network.

What is DHCP and How to Enable It

What Does DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Do?

DHCP is a network tool that makes it easy for devices in a network to get set up.

Here’s how it works: there’s a central computer or a router that hands out IP addresses. These addresses are like labels for each device, telling them where they are in the network.

With DHCP, when a new device joins the network, it gets all the necessary info—like its IP address—automatically.

Using DHCP saves you a bunch of time because you don’t have to set up each device manually.

Once you’ve set up a DHCP server in your network, all the computers can get their settings automatically. And if there are devices with WiFi hardware, they can get their info from your machine, too.

But, if a computer already has its settings manually configured, DHCP won’t give it a new address.

For all the devices to join in, you need to make sure DHCP is turned on and ready to assign addresses. In this article, we’ll show you how to set up DHCP to get an automatic IP address on a laptop or desktop from your ADSL router.

Features Of DHCP Protocol

It gives setup details to computers on the network through the TCP/IP protocol. Plus, it has a way to hand out addresses.

This protocol came out in October 1993 and was published in a document called RFC 2131. Also, the latest version is in RFC 3415.

Host Address Assignment

If you don’t have DHCP, you have to set up each computer’s settings by hand. And if you move a computer to a new spot on the network, you have to give it a new IP address.

However, with DHCP, the admins can handle everything from one place. They can give out IP numbers automatically and even switch them up if a computer moves to a new spot on the network.

This protocol has three ways to give out these numbers:

  1. Manual or Static Assignment: We give a specific computer its IP address. This helps us control which client gets which address and stops unknown devices from connecting.
  2. Automatic Assignment: When a PC asks our DHCP machine for an address for the first time, it gives it a permanent one. We usually use this when the number of PCs stays about the same.
  3. Dynamic Allocation: This is the only way we change network numbers as needed. The network boss sets up a range of numbers, and any device we connect to the LAN gets one automatically. When a device joins the network, it asks the machine for an internet connection ID.

Some apps can update the DNS for servers using a protocol called DNS update (RFC 2136) when there are new IP numbers.

It’s another way to manage network codes besides BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol). Both are often used.

If a server can’t give out an address in Windows 98 or later, it uses something called “Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing.”

DHCP Parameters

A DHCP machine can provide an optional configuration for the client’s PC. These options are defined in RFC 2132.

A list of configurable options:

DHCP Applications

Microsoft introduced DHCP to NT Servers in late 1994 with Windows NT version 3.5. Despite calling it a new function, they didn’t invent it.

ISC introduced DHCP deployments for Unix in 1997 with version 1.0.0 of ISC-DHCP-SERVER. Later, a more RFC-compliant version (2.0) was released in 1999.

  1. Cisco: A server enabled in Cisco IOS 12.0 as of February 1999.
  2. Sun: On July 8, 2001, its support was added to the Solaris operating system.

Also, some routers include dynamic IP assignment support for LANs of up to 255 computers.

How DHCP Works?

1) Discover

Clients send a request to the DHCP machine to obtain their IP codes. The router can be configured to route packets to a server on a different subnet. The client application creates a UDP (User Datagram Protocol) package with a target of 255.255.255.255. It requires the last known ones, although it is not needed and can be ignored by the server.

2) Offer

It specifies the server configuration based on the media code of the specified client computer. The machine determines the number in the registry, which is given in other parameters.

3) Request

The client selects the configuration of the packets received from the Offer. The client once again requests a specific address specified by the server.

4) Acknowledge

It sends confirmation and closing messages showing the last parameters from the server to the client.

5) Pack

The server responds to DHCPREQUEST with a DHCPACK to complete the startup cycle. The source address is the server machine, and the destination one is still 255.255.255.255. But the Source Address is the code of the machine, and the destination one is still 255.255.255.255.

6) Inform

When a client PC needs to obtain an IP number, it sends a request to the DHCP machine. The server then requests more information than what was sent with the original DHCPACK. Or it wants to repeat data for a specific use.

Let me give an example: browsers use this information to obtain the proxy configuration via WPAD. Such requests do not cause the server to refresh the expiration time in the database.

How to Enable DHCP on the ADSL Modem/Router using Windows 10

Suppose you are a home user using an ADSL modem. In that case, you must enable the DHCP machine on your device to assign an automatic IP address to clients on your LAN.

Steps:

Step 1

To enable the DHCP PC on the TP-Link W8980 ADSL Router, first enter the default gateway number in your web browser, press Enter, and then click DHCP machine.

TP-LINK / IP Server

Step 2

If this option is disabled, click Enable to reactivate it.

Enabling Server

Step 3

After enabling the server, you can specify which numbers to use on the 192.168.1.0 network.

The following screenshot is set to assign values ​​between 192.168.1.100 and 192.168.1.199. After entering the DNS addresses, save the settings.

TP-LINK TCP/IP Configuration

Step 4

If you look at the IP addresses assigned by the dynamic assignment server, you can see that the Android phone receives 192.168.1.100.

 Clients List

Automatic IP Settings and Configuration on Windows 10

For DHCP settings, you must configure your LAN adapter from the Network and Sharing Center.

Follow these steps to help a computer obtain an automatic address from the server.

Steps:

Step 1

The first step in enabling dynamic IP assignment is to open the Network and Sharing Center. As shown in the picture below, you can immediately access the LAN and the sharing center after clicking the Wireless icon.

Network and Sharing Center

Step 2

Click the WiFi card or Ethernet card you connected. Then, the WiFi status window will open.

WiFi Network Settings

Step 3

After the WiFi Status opens, click the Properties button. The WiFi properties window will open.

Wi-Fi Status

Adım 4

To set up your WiFi, go to the WiFi Properties window. Then, choose the IPv4 option and click on Properties. From there, you can adjust your WiFi settings however you like.

Wi-Fi TCP/IP Settings

Step 5

The settings in the following image are statically set. You can enter the desired address manually. In this screen, we can enable the DHCP service to get an address from the modem.

For TCP settings on Windows 10, select the option in the following image. After choosing the automatic assignment, the Obtain an IP address automatically option will be enabled.

Obtain an IP address automatically

Step 6

After setting the IP settings to be automatically retrieved from the server, click OK to save the settings.

Obtain an IP address automatically

Step 7

After enabling client service, click on your WiFi card and automatically check the TCP information you receive.

Network Connection Details

What Happens If DHCP Is Turned Off?

As you can see, the system settings for automatically getting the Internet Protocol address are elementary. However, TCP/IP settings must be configured correctly. If this protocol is disabled, computers on the network cannot automatically obtain an IP.

If you have 150-200 computers in a network environment, you must configure the server. Otherwise, you must manually configure these and other information.

If this protocol is turned off, you must manually configure it. In the above steps, you can examine the IP, Subnet Mask, Gateway, and DNS addresses assigned to a computer.

Suppose this protocol is turned off in a network environment with 200 computers. In that case, the computers cannot receive and communicate information from the Internet Protocol.

Video

To enable this server on the ADSL Router and configure automatic Internet Protocol addresses, you can watch the video below and subscribe to our YouTube channel to support us!

Conclusion

To sum up, I have examined how to set up a DHCP server, focusing on ADSL Modems or routers. Finally, I have given you an IP address and essential network information. Thanks for following us!

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