What is E-Mail (Electronic Mail)?

E-Mail (Electronic Mail) is a network service that allows users to send and receive messages and files quickly through electronic communication systems.

What is E-Mail (Electronic Mail)?

Electronic Mail and History

This name is mainly used to refer to the system that provides this service on the Internet using the SMTP protocol.

In the past, in the human community, it was required to communicate with sounds different from drums or other materials, or from the remains of animals or plants, through smoke signals.

When writing was invented, another form of communication began with the emergence of alternative organizations, such as letters called Postal Services.

Thanks to these organizations, letters were available to their recipients, only the sender had to know the location of the person to whom the letter was directed.

With the emergence of computers and the general development of Information and Communication Technologies, it feels the need to share human resources, in addition to the exchange of ideas on a particular subject, it has been possible to send e-mail messages between terminals in the same local network since the early 1960s.

In an MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) demonstration in 1961, a system was shown that allowed multiple users to access an IBM 7094 from remote terminals, thereby saving files to disk. This made possible new ways of sharing information.

E-mail started to be used on its supercomputer in 1965, and it spread rapidly to be used in computer networks in 1966.

When computers belong to different networks, it was enough to know the name of another user on the same network, where this service was impossible.

In 1971, Ray Tomlinson created the program that allowed two-way e-mail to be sent by the recipient.

Ray Tomlinson later included the use of the @ sign. He chose this sign as a marker between the user and the computer where the mailbox is located.

How Does It Work?

When you want to send a letter, you must use a post office service. The address of the recipient is very important here, so you will have to write the information correctly. Then, you will have to wait a bit for the letter you send according to the postal code, which is separated by geographical regions, to reach the recipient.

This works the same in the E-Mail system, but you will not have to wait for the delivery time.

It also allows the naming of other similar systems that use different technologies. E-mail messages make it possible to send all kinds of digital documents, audio, and video in addition to the text.

Mail created on a network can be delivered not to a computer on the local network, but to someone on the Internet, or to an online server on another remote network.

When a typical message is sent from one network to another or to a recipient on the Internet, these are the steps to follow:

A mail message is created using SMTP and as with all data transfers sent over the Internet, the message is split into IP packets by the TCP Protocol.

The address in the packet sent is examined by the mail transfer agent in the local network. If the address is on another network, the mail transfer agent sends the mail to the mail transfer agent on the receiving network using edge routers in the local network.

Before mail can be sent over the Internet, it may need to pass through a firewall, which is a computer on the local network, so intruders can be prevented from accessing it.

The firewall monitors messages and data entering and leaving the network, and the message leaves the network and is sent to an Internet router.

After the router examines the address, it sends the message, determining where the message should be sent.

Once the receiving network receives the e-mail message, it uses a gateway to convert IP packets into a complete message, then converts the message to a specific protocol the network uses and sends it again.

The e-mail address is then examined and the message is sent to the specific mailbox the message is intended for or delivered to a mail server via the POP protocol.

Common Free E-Mail Services


The number one system for free mail services without exception is Gmail. This service has been running by Google since 2004. Also, creating a Gmail account is very simple.

Gmail gives you the functionality to view messages without opening them. You can read and write draft emails without an internet connection. You can filter the messages sent to you by category and use labels instead of folders.

When you want to send a mail, the message size is 25 MB in Gmail.

In addition to mail services, Gmail offers higher quality and a context-free total of 15 GB of storage than other services below.


It is a free mail service developed by Microsoft for Windows systems, previously known as Hotmail.

The Outlook interface is similar to other mail systems and has a folder list, inbox, sent messages, and drafts in the left panel.

The main screen of the Outlook service is used to display the contents of the folder you are in, so you can browse through the various emails in that section.

Messages can be archived or tagged so they appear only in certain previews, not in the inbox.

If you receive unsolicited emails, Outlook will delete you from that person’s subscription to prevent such spam messages from reaching you. Outlook also offers 5GB of storage in a smaller size than Gmail, and the message size limit is 20MB.


Adopted as the world’s third-largest email provider behind Gmail and Outlook, Yahoo Mail has a modern design.

Yahoo Mail’s view allows the user to easily find the inbox with spam, deleted messages, and folder list to organize emails themselves.

You can create extra folders to organize your own messages, and you can drag your emails into any of these folders and change their location. You can star messages to assign categories.

Yahoo also provides 1 GB of storage service, which is even lower than Gmail and Outlook, and the message size limit is 25 MB.


It is a cloud storage system from Apple company that has been operating since 2011. If you have an iPhone or iPad, you will have an iCloud email account. It is less functional than other emails and you cannot customize it.

As with Gmail, Outlook, or Yahoo, the panel from which you read mail cannot be minimized or placed under the inbox.

You may need to give some buyers a higher priority to avoid losing their messages. iCloud has made email functions simpler for users.

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