What is IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange)?

IPX is a Novell protocol that interconnects networks used by Novell Netware clients and servers. Additionally, it is a datagram protocol that offers the best connection for sending data packets but does not guarantee data delivery.

What is IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange)?

IPX Protocol

IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) is a packet-oriented and non-connection oriented protocol. SPX (Sequenced Packet eXchange), which provides packet delivery, runs on this protocol.

The Novell Network Protocol is an implementation of the Xerox IDP (Internetwork Datagram Packet) protocol.

Allows applications running on DOS, Windows, or OS/2 workstations to access NetWare network drives and communicate with other workstations, servers, or other devices on the network.

Because this is a connectionless and unreliable protocol, it transmits data to a remote node but does not wait for a response or acknowledgment indicating whether the data was successfully received.

What Does It Do?

The most basic thing that distinguishes an Intranet network from local private network types is that it uses the TCP/IP protocol. When you send information over an intranet, the data is divided into small packets and reaches its destination.

TCP splits the data into packets and groups the packet when it receives it again. IP manages the forwarding of data and ensures that it is sent to the precise destination.

In some companies, there may be complex networks combined with TCP/IP-based networks or other technologies such as NetWare. In such a network structure, TCP/IP can transfer data between NetWare and other networks using a technique called PipeIP.

NetWare networks use the IPX (Internet Packet Exchange) protocol for data transmission. Thus, TCP/IP networks cannot recognize an IP address from a dedicated NetWare server.

As TCP generates each packet, it divides the data into packets, calculates and adds a control number to them. The control number can vary depending on byte values, ie the exact amount of data in the packet.

Each packet is placed in separate IP containers with its control number. These packets contain information that includes where the data will be sent within the Intranet or the Internet.

Packets travel between other networks through routers, and routers examine IP containers. These routers can send or receive packets in different ways, determining the most efficient way to send each packet to its final destination.

If the router realizes that the address in the IP packet is within the network, the packet can be sent directly to its destination. If the address is on the same network, the packet will be sent to another router.

When the packets reach their destination, TCP calculates the control number for each and compares that control number with the number sent in the packet. In this case, if the control numbers do not match, the data packet is assumed to be corrupt.

The package is then dropped and the original package is requested to be sent again. In this data stream, TCP controls all incoming and outgoing packets.

How Does It Work?

When a computer on the network wants to connect to the Internet and request any information, a request is sent to a browser on the Intranet. This browser serves to send the request to the exact destination on the Internet.

In NetWare networks, the NetWare operating system is used to maintain network traffic and management. NetWare uses this protocol as a method to route packets over the network.

It does not provide Internet access and does not carry Internet information. Workstations on the NetWare network and servers on the network must have IPX loaded in memory to use the network.

In order for workstations on the Novell network to access the Internet or intranet, they must run the TCP/IP protocols. To do this, a TCP/IP stack must be installed on each computer that will allow access to the Intranet.

This means that IPX and a TCP/IP stack will be installed on each computer to allow access to the Internet and Ethernet network.

A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit-Data Service Unit) establishes a physical connection between the Intranet router and the ISP.

The requested information is returned via the CSU/DSU and router and then forwarded to the computer requesting the information.

If the information resides on an internal network, the router will send the request to the full host, which will send the information back to the requester.

Allows computers on the NetWare/IP network to access NetWare services and the Internet. This does not have to run IPX and TCP/IP systems, eliminating memory issues caused by multiple stacks.

Package Structure

Because this protocol is connectionless and does not wait for approval status, it performs higher than a connection or session based on protocols such as SPX or NetBios.

It uses a 12-byte addressing scheme to transmit data packets:

  1. Source and Destination Networks: Each network address must be unique on the network.
  2. Source and Target Nodes: It specifies the network nodes within workgroups.
  3. Source and Destination Sockets: It allows multiple high-level protocols to use IPX services simultaneously.

As a result, the client protocol needs to know the socket number in the remote peer application in order to communicate with its corresponding peer.

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