What is Apple? | Exploring Its History, Foundation, and Innovations

Apple Inc., an American multinational company, creates and manufactures electronic equipment and software. The company’s well-known hardware products are Macintosh computers, iPods, iPhones, and iPads.

What is Apple? Its History and Foundation

What is the History of Apple Company and How Has It Come From Past to Present?

Apple software encompasses various products. These include the Mac OS X operating system and iTunes Media Explorer. It also consists of the iLife, iWork, and Final Cut Studio. Moreover, it offers industry cinema software products and Logic Studio, a set of audio tools.

The company operates over 250 stores in nine countries. Additionally, it has thousands of distributors and an online store. These channels sell their products and provide technical advice.

What is the Foundation Story?

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak got to know each other in 1971 through a familiar friend, Bill Fernandez.

Steve Wozniak, commonly known as Woz, has always had a strong affinity for electronics. He continually sought ways to maximize their potential, starting with small paper circuits.

Given his fondness for electronics, Woz also sponsored other people. Some of these individuals include Bill Fernandez and Steve Jobs.

Soon, Woz started spending more time building his computer on paper. After relatively unsuccessful attempts, their efforts ultimately led to success. This success determined what the computer would be.

After watching his computer show at Homebrew Computer Club, Jobs saw it could be a good business idea. So, he started promoting the computer among other computer enthusiasts. He targeted Homebrew Computer Club and other digital electronics stores.

Soon after, they started taking small orders by selling about 200 copies of Apple I machines. Hand-made machines produced these computers. Additionally, more people joined them. But, their performance could have improved. Thus, they started looking for funding.

Finally, Jobs met Mike Markkula, who agreed to invest, creating Apple Computer on April 1, 1976.

They produced and sold about two hundred units at $500. But, the success brought a new challenge. They needed help to cope with such high demand.

Jobs and Wozniak had limited money, which restricted AppleI’s features. To build the prototype, Jobs had to sell his van and Woz the HP programmable calculator.

Version II

With the money earned from the sale of Apple I, he could start thinking of a much more ambitious machine. Apple II would be the computer it wanted to build with the version without financial constraints.

It had the idea of ​​adding video memory to the computer to manage the color display. Likewise, it included a lot of expansion cards. These allowed users to expand the computer’s capabilities according to their needs.

With the design of the prototype of Apple II recently completed, the company decided to take part in a new competition. The Personal Computer Festival named this competition. There, the beginner microcomputer industry can show progress and communicate business communication.

The founders of my company met with the founders of Processor Technology. This meeting happened by coincidence on a Philadelphia flight in 1976. It had a significant impact on Apple’s near future.

By 1976, microcomputer use had become the main focus for most machines and companies. As a result, all who created the festival were primarily young computer fans. These fans had kits that users had to assemble and resource for their work. That’s why the festival focused mainly on electronics enthusiasts.

However, Processor Technology presented a much more serious and professional image. It allowed Sol to get it as an already assembled, ready-made computer. But, it focused like others on a kit to make.

Improvements for Version II

Steve Jobs grasped a crucial insight back then: the future wasn’t in DIY boards. He recognized the potential of readily accessible computers, like Sun’s, for users’ seamless enjoyment.

Due to this imperative, they had to ensure the upcoming Apple II included essential components. These components included video output, a keyboard, and more. They were all enclosed in a plastic box to make them easier to use.

Even though Steve Wozniak is behind all logic and electronics, Steve Jobs has always focused on creating a product. He aimed to meet all users, not just the most technical ones.

Besides the decision to sell the Apple II as a packaged set, there were other important decisions. These decisions included investing in better power supply systems and controlling equipment heating. Apple II did not need fans to regulate its temperature.

But thinking about such a machine requires a lot of money. Additionally, they needed qualified personnel to execute the vision.

Banks wanted to avoid risking such a project. Moreover, in those days, the idea of a computer accessible to the public seemed ridiculous. It was because the potential assets of residents at that time were scarce. People couldn’t afford this kind of technology.

Helping Jobs and Wozniak design Apple I, Ronald Wayne was skeptical about the project’s chances of success. So, he decided to leave the company.

1977 Jobs met Mike Markkula, who contributed business expertise and $250,000.00 in Apple capital. As a result, Apple appointed Mike Scott as the first President.

Latest Model of Version II

They released Apple II’s latest model to the public in April 1977. This model later became a canon for what a personal computer should have been.

That is why the company changed its logo to the famous symbol of the colorful apple. This logo represents Apple II, one of the first computers with a color monitor. In mid-1979, Apple introduced the II+ model. This model evolved with more memory and the BASIC programming language.

Apple primarily succeeded by catering to hackers and the general public. They designed the computer to please both of these user groups.

Soon, the software base of Apple II began to grow. It made the computer more attractive to the rest of the public. Especially when the first spreadsheet in history, VisiCalc, appeared on the market. So, Apple sold thousands of products.

Next Apple Computers

While he knew AppleII was driving success, he was already working on his products. Lisa, the evolution of Apple II marked a significant milestone. It would be a crossover that introduced a new class of equipment. It happened before the introduction of Lisa and Macintosh.

For followers of Apple II, Steve Jobs wanted an even more advanced machine. This machine would contribute to the business computing market. Engineers had to stick to very ambitious and sometimes attainable goals. It was especially true considering that the development time needed to be longer.

Although his sales were more vital than ever, he anticipated a future decline. Thus, presenting his product as quickly as possible became necessary.

Apple finally introduced the computer in May 1980, naming it Apple III. Unfortunately, it caused overheating due to technical problems. One of these problems was the need for a fan.

Due to significant issues in its first release, it had to replace thousands of Apple III units. But, a few months later, in November 1981, Apple released a new version that addressed these problems. They introduced an III+ version in 1983.

However, the problems initially deterred the buyers. As a result, Apple III experienced its first major commercial failure.

Sales Success

They had only sold 65,000 computers by the end of the summer. The company had aimed to sell millions, like the Apple II. Yet, they named the following computer models Apple II due to the disappointing sales. It was to distance themselves from the troubled journey of Apple III.

Despite AppleIII’s failure, it still had two models to improve: Lisa and Macintosh.

Apple’s big bet was Lisa. They designed this next-generation computer to target the job market. It aimed to rectify the shortcomings of Apple III. Furthermore, Lisa intended to compete with the IBM PC.

Macintosh was a project launched by Jef Raskin. The aim was to build a very cheap and easy-to-use small computer. They specifically designed this computer for the domestic market.

As mentioned earlier, they intended Lisa to be the next generation of computers. They spared no cost in achieving this goal. The final model included a monitor, two floppy drives, a 5 Megabyte hard drive, and a total megabyte RAM.

However, they did not display all these features for the first time. Instead, they introduced a new icon-based user interface. Users activated this interface by pointing an arrow controlled by a curious mouse device.

The Company’s Significant Deal

During Lisa’s development, Steve Jobs negotiated an agreement. This agreement involved visiting Xerox laboratories for a million-dollar stake. They stayed in conjunction with Xerox PARC. Additionally, Jobs received advice from people like Jef Raskin and Bill Atkinson.

After this visit in December 1979, Jobs had a realization. He understood that the future would be on machines with a graphical interface. Lisa’s entire computer interface was re-modeled to adapt to new ideas seen on Xerox PARC.

On December 12, 1980, Apple went public. Before this momentous event, only a select few employees owned shares. They sold 4.6 million shares almost instantly, raking in $22 each. Presently, it boosted the company’s capital to $100 million. Simultaneously, dozens of employees became instant millionaires.

Some Troubles Encountered by the Company

Despite the company’s remarkable global success, 1981 was a challenging year. Also, to AppleIII’s problems, Mike Scott made shocking decisions to fire his employees.

The following month, Mike Scott, the head of the liquidators, took over. This time, he assumed the director role alongside Mike Markkula and Steve Jobs.

On August 12, they released the main threat to Apple’s hegemony. It was the IBM PC. While not a very innovative machine, the IBM brand image greatly appealed to the business industry. As a result, it achieved brilliant success.

Mike Markkula relieved Steve’s team from their duties. He accused Steve Jobs of mishandling the team.

Finally, he started working on the Macintosh project. Lisa finally appeared in early 1983. It became the first personal computer with a graphical interface and mouse. But, despite its revolutionary nature, Lisa sold very poorly. It was mainly due to its high price of $10,000.

As a result of the difficulties faced by Apple III and Lisa, Mike Markkula resigned from management in 1983. Someone later proposed the President’s position to Pepsi Vice President John Sculley.

At first, John Sculley refused the position. Steve Jobs asked him a profound question to persuade him: “Do you prefer the rest of your life to sell sugar juice or change the world?” Eventually, John Sculley agreed and became the company’s third President.

Apple Macintosh Computers

After Apple III and Lisa failed, the company returned to Macintosh. Macintosh was originally a small project of Jef Raskin and then Steve Jobs.

They had many issues with the computer like it being slow and having problems with the software. But they finally showed it to everyone on January 24, 1984. The big reveal was a critical moment for the company.

The sales would reach 500,000 by the end of the year. They thought it would happen in the first few months of 1984. Additionally, the strong demand for the computer indicated its popularity among consumers. Still, sales slowed and caused panic in the company.

Several factors stand out among the many reasons for the wear of Macintosh sales. Some problems with the computer are its cost and lack of memory. It also has only one disk drive and a few places to plug things in or extra software.

Macintosh sales declined, and Apple II showed wear. Combining projects, they decided to develop the Lisa computer as a high-end Macintosh.

However, this merger created tension inside Apple. On the one hand, the group responsible for Apple II felt displaced entirely. But, it was the only economically profitable division within the company. So, Lisa and the Macintosh development group had very different working philosophies. Additionally, they faced varying salary conditions and issues with employee wage deductions.

The tense situation also affected the top leadership. So, Steve Jobs saw it as a time bomb that needed quick resolution.

Greenpeace Problem

Greenpeace launched a campaign to stop Apple from using highly polluting materials. Other major computer manufacturers had already abandoned them. Now, he has changed his policy and leads the company that operates the least toxic products.

Apple Mac Products


1) Mac Mini

They intended it for low-medium users. They introduced the Mac Mini in January 2005 as the smallest, cheapest, and least influential member of the Mac family.

2) iMac

They intended it for medium-professional users. Its main feature is the combination of all computer components in an enclosure with the screen. They introduced the iMac in 1998.

3) Mac Pro

Mac Pro is for professional users. It is the most powerful of all Macs and one of the most powerful available on the market. They introduced the Mac Pro in August 2006.


1) iPad

It targets low-medium type users. Introduced in January 2010, this computer is a 9.7 “touchscreen computer.

2) MacBook

It targets low-medium type users. The MacBook, introduced in 2006, is the best-selling, trendy laptop due to its sleek size and design.

3) MacBook Air

Their target audience is medium professional users. In January 2008, they unveiled it as the world’s thinnest computer, an ultraportable marvel.

4) MacBook Pro

Their aim: professional users. Similar to the MacBook, it brims with power and performance. The MacBook Pro debuted in January 2006.


1) Xserve

Geared for professionals and companies, Xserve features potent Intel Xeon processors for enhanced performance.

Accessories of Products

Selling diverse accessories for Mac PCs, compatible with various operating systems. The crucial accessories include:


1) Airport Express

This is a portable WiFi station, allowing for convenient web access anywhere. They recommend it for small floors or apartments. It is small and versatile for comfortable movement.

2) AirPort Extreme

It is a desktop WiFi station. They recommend it for large homes, offices, or classrooms. It can create a high-speed WiFi network.

3) Time Capsule

It is a desktop WiFi station and an external hard drive. The company usually recommends it for large homes, offices, or classrooms. Thus, it creates a high-speed WiFi network and harmonizes with Mac OS Leopard’s Time Machine.


1) Wired Keyboard

The company’s original wired keyboard is available by default alongside Mac computers. It has an extra-slim, standard layout, a numeric section, and two high-speed USB ports.

2) Wireless Keyboard

It is similar to the company’s wired keyboard product but uses a Bluetooth wireless system as its working style.


1) Magic Mouse

It is a wired mouse with a touch-sensitive chassis. The mouse has two pressure-sensitive switches and a central ball, allowing you to move in all directions.

2) Wired Mouse

It is a wired mouse with a touch-sensitive case. The mouse has two pressure-sensitive switches and a central sphere. It allows you to move in all directions.

3) Wireless Mouse

It consists of a touch-sensitive case. Additionally, it has two pressure-sensitive switches. There is also a central sphere that allows movement in all directions. Furthermore, they have located a Bluetooth sensor on the back.


1) LED Cinema Screen

It is the company’s 24-inch widescreen. It is an accessory for MacBook only. Its function is to expand its visual functionality.


The company has introduced a range of models for this device, catering to the diverse needs of users.

Since April 9, 2007, the iPod has dominated the market for portable music players, boasting an impressive 100 million units sold. Additionally, Apple formed a partnership with Nike to promote the iPod Kit.

Apple offers four distinct variants of the iPod, each equipped with downloadable media and music update services. Users can conveniently enjoy their music and manage their collection through the iTunes website. Moreover, they can purchase or download original versions of existing songs.

1) iPod Classic

Initially launched in 2001, the iPod Classic is a portable multimedia player with 120GB and 160 GB capacities.

2) iPod Nano

Introduced in 2005, the iPod Nano is a portable media player offered in models with 8 GB and 16 GB storage capacities.

3) iPod Shuffle

The iPod Shuffle, a digital music player unveiled in 2005, comes with storage options of 1 GB, 2 GB, and 4 GB.

4) iPod Touch

They released iPod Touch, a portable multimedia player, in September 2007. It comes in two versions: 8 or 16 GB. The device features Bluetooth, a touchscreen, and a motion sensor. Volume control is available through two small side buttons. It also includes built-in speakers and is available in 16 or 32-GB versions.


At the Conference & Expo in January 2007, Macworld made a long-awaited announcement. It was about the iPhone with Internet convergence for Steve Jobs, iPod, and Smartphone.

iPhone combined the 2.5G Quad-Band GSM and EDGE mobile phone with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. It also includes web-based and Dashboard applications such as Google Maps and Weather.

Apple TV

At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs showed Apple TV, known as iTV, a video device that links the sale of iTunes content with HDTVs.

The device connects to the user’s TV. It synchronizes with a computer’s iTunes library through WiFi or a wired network. Moreover, it broadcasts information to enhance connectivity. It included a 40 GB hard drive for storage, including HDMI and component connections. It was capable of playing videos at the greatest 1080i resolution.

On May 31, 2007, they released a 160 GB disk drive model. This model offered increased storage capacity. On January 15, 2008, they released a software update. This update introduced a new feature allowing users to buy TV content.

Apple macOS Software

Mac develops its operating system to run on Mac OS X; the latest version is Mac OS X 10.5 Catalina.

It independently develops software titles for the Mac OS X operating system. It creates most of the software that comes with its computers.

Also, iTunes, QuickTime media player and Safari browser are free downloads for Mac OS X and Windows.

It also offers a broad scope of professional software titles. The content of server software includes the Mac OS X Server operating system. Remote Desktop enables remote control and management. Additionally, WebObjects serves as a Java Web Application Server. Xsan, however, functions as a filesystem storage area network.

It offers an aperture for RAW photo processing. Moreover, it provides a video production package called Final Cut Studio. Additionally, logic offers a comprehensive set of musical tools. Furthermore, Shake is available as an advanced effect composition program.

It provides various online services. These services include email, groups, iDisk, backup, iSync, Learning Center, and online tutorials.

Criticisms and Discussions

Software Limitations

We know that the company reduces the possibilities of hardware and software products. They do this by taking advantage of their tradition and development capabilities. Some examples of this are:


  • The iPhone has Bluetooth limitations and lacks support for all possible profiles.
  • While the iPhone has no radio, it has a chip with FM radio capabilities. At first, people suspected that this improvement aimed to enhance the use of the music platform iTunes Music Store. They then rejected this theory and applied the service to new iPods.
  • There was a lack of video capture in the early versions of the iPhone, where the camera could record video.


Lack of 64-bit mod on technical Macs: Even if your processor can work with a 64-bit command set, you can’t run the system kernel in 64-bit mode without EFI boot.

You can resolve this issue with software updates. But, it affects all Macs with an Intel processor sold from 2006 to 2008, despite the majority being capable of handling it.

But since Mac OS X, version 10.4 can run coded apps compiled with 64-bit instructions and handle more than 4 GB of RAM. Even then, you can run third-party operating systems like Microsoft Windows or GNU/Linux in 64-bit mode without limitations.


In 2009, App Store contracts always determined the application cases for the censored iPhone OS platform.

The best-known case is when Google apps and Voice service get pulled from the App Store after approval.

People believe that AT&T, with its exclusive iPhone-specific distribution rights in the US, puts pressure on the company. It offers a phone over the data network, preventing users from using the voice service and making payments.

In late 2009, Google restarted the Voice service as a web page designed for iPhone.

Company and User Relations

It was one of the few successful companies founded in the 1970s. Southwest Airlines and Microsoft are successful companies. Moreover, they share cultural aspects from the same period. Even if the company is in the Fortune 500 company rankings, it often goes barefoot.

This feature has become a distinctive element of the company trying to separate itself from its competitors. Several chief executives have managed and overseen the growth of the company. They have ideas about what it should be and have an original character. Additionally, they have a reputation for promoting individuality and excellence. He created a scholarship program to get to know the best of his employees.

The company has awarded several people for their contributions to personal computers. These include Bill Atkinson, Steve Capps, Rod Holt, Alan Kay, Guy Kawasaki, Al Alcorn, Don Norman, and Steve Wozniak. Moreover, they have received scholarships for their outstanding technical leadership in the company.

JD Power surveys show it has the highest buyback brand and loyalty. It surpasses any other computer equipment and components manufacturer.

Although brand loyalty is unusual for any product, the company considers how it works. There was a time when their evangelists were safe by the company. Still, it was only after this phenomenon was already firmly determined.

Guy Kawasaki supported a network of Mac User Groups in the most critical and many small Population centers with Mac computers.

Mac users come together at Expo and Macworld in San Francisco at fairs where it introduces new products to the industry and the public every year.

Mac developers are meeting at the Developers Conference, the annual worldwide assembly. Store openings can take thousands of people out of their houses; the group was waiting for the next day or event on the front in other countries.


Since its launch in 1984, the Macintosh has advertised and marketed its products. However, critics have targeted it for claims made in newer campaigns, particularly the Power Mac 2005 campaign.

The first logo, designed by Jobs and Wayne, represents Sir Isaac Newton modeling under an apple tree. People needed to like the original design more. So, Rob Janoff redesigned it and offered various monochrome logos based on the same apple.

The concept was well-received, but Jobs insisted on incorporating rainbow colors. It was to emphasize the company’s humanization and Mac’s image quality.

Although it is generally accepted that the logo references Isaac Newton, a curious urban legend exists. This legend guarantees that the apple bite pays tribute to mathematician Alan Turing. He committed suicide by eating an apple poisoned with cyanide.

The original designer, Janoff, also discussed other theories about motivation. For example, the apple could symbolize information or reference the Computer Byte with a bite.

In 1998, with the launch of the new iMac, the company began using a monochrome logo. This change was due to Jobs’ insistence upon his return to the company. Interestingly, this monochrome logo is identical to the previous rainbow incarnation.

The logo is one of the world’s most recognized brand symbols. It identifies all products and retail stores, appearing as a sticker on almost all Macintosh and Apple products.

In 2001, they replaced the monochrome design. It reflected the characteristic Aqua theme of Mac OS X. Then, in 2003, the logo underwent another modification. It acquired a chrome effect to advertise the Mac OS X Panther and the rest of the product range.

In recent years, some industries have harshly criticized Apple’s ads. They disqualify the competition in a way that has raised concerns.

Related Articles

1) What is a Personal Computer?
2) What is macOS?
3) How to Install macOS on a PC
4) How to Install macOS Virtual Machine
5) How to Install Chrome on Mac

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *