What is Apple? Its History and Foundation

Apple Inc is a multinational American company that designs and manufactures electronic equipment and software. Among the company’s best-known hardware products are Macintosh computers, iPod, iPhone, and iPad.

What is Apple? Its History and Foundation

Apple Inc

Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system, iTunes Media Explorer, iLife package, iWork package, Final Cut Studio, a sound package professional, industry cinema software products, and Logic Studio, a set of audio tools.

The company operates over 250 own stores in nine countries, thousands of distributors and an online store where its products are sold, and provides technical advice.

Foundation Story

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak met when a common friend, Bill Fernandez, promoted Wozniak in 1971.

Steve Wozniak, who likes to be called Woz, has always had a great appeal for electronics, he has designed it since her small paper circuits and then tried to maximize them.

Given his fondness for electronics, Woz also sponsored other people like the subject, Bill Fernandez or Steve Jobs.

Soon Woz started spending more time building his own computer on paper. After relatively unsuccessful attempts, their efforts ultimately resulted in what the computer would be.

After seeing his computer presentation and participants at Homebrew Computer Club, Jobs quickly saw the business opportunity, so he started promoting the computer among other computer enthusiasts at Homebrew Computer Club and other digital electronics stores.

Soon after, they started taking small orders by selling about 200 copies of Apple I machines for computers that they produced with hand-made machines. More people joined them, but their performance was limited, so they started looking for funding.

Finally, Jobs met Mike Markkula, who agreed to invest, thereby creating Apple Computer on April 1, 1976.

In total, about two hundred units were produced and sold at $500, but success was that they could not cope with such high demand.

AppleI’s features were limited to the little money that Jobs and Wozniak had. In fact, in order to build the prototype, Jobs had to sell his van and Woz the HP programmable calculator.

Apple II

With the money earned from the sale of Apple I, he could start thinking of a much more ambitious machine. Apple II would be the computer it wanted to build with the version I without financial constraints.

It had the idea of ​​adding video memory to the computer to manage the color display, likewise, it included a lot of expansion cards so that users could expand the capabilities of the computer according to their needs.

With the design of the first prototype of Apple II, which was recently completed, it decided to participate in a new competition, the Personal Computer Festival. There, the beginner microcomputer industry can show progress and communicate business and communication.

The founders of my company met with the founders of Processor Technology, which designed the Left computer, a coincidence that had a huge impact on Apple’s near future, in Philadelphia flight in 1976.

The vast majority of machines and companies dedicated to microcomputer use in 1976, and as a result, all who created the festival were, for example, young computer fans with kits that users had to assemble and resource for their work. That’s why he focused primarily on electronics enthusiasts.

However, Processor Technology offered a much more serious and professional image and allowed Sol to acquire it as an already assembled ready-made computer, although it focused like others as a kit to assemble.

At that time, Steve Jobs understood that the future was not on boards with components that users had to assemble and weld themselves, but on computers like Sun, ready and ready for users to use and enjoy.

For this reason, AppleII, which has not been released yet, had to include the video output, keyboard, and everything it needed to make it easier to use in a plastic box.

Even though Steve Wozniak is behind all logic and electronics, Steve Jobs has always been behind creating a product that can satisfy all users, not just the most technical ones.

In addition to the decision to sell AppleII as a perfectly packaged set, other important decisions were to invest in better power supply systems and control the heating of the equipment, AppleII did not need fans to control its temperature.

But thinking about such a machine involved a lot of money and qualified personnel that they did not have.

No bank wanted to risk such a project, and even less in those days: the computer that the public could use seemed ridiculous as the potential assets of residents at that time were scarce to purchase this kind of technology. Helping Jobs and Wozniak design AppleI, Ronald Wayne was skeptical about the chances of success for such a project and left the company.

Jobs met Mike Markkula in 1977, which contributed to business expertise and a capital of $250,000.00 in Apple’s capital. On this occasion, Apple gave the title of the first President to Mike Scott.

AppleII’s latest model was released to the public in April 1977 and later became a canon for what a personal computer should have been.

That is why the company changed its logo to the famous logo of the colorful apple, which remembered that AppleII was one of the first computers with a color monitor. In mid-1979, it introduced II+, an evolution especially equipped with more memory and BASIC programming language.

Much of Apple’s success was based on the fact that it was a computer made to please both hackers and the most respectful public in terms of computing.

Soon, the software base of Apple II began to grow, making the computer more attractive to the rest of the public, especially when the first spreadsheet in history, VisiCalc, appeared on the market selling thousands of products by its computers.

Next Computers

While he knew that AppleII was driving success, he was already working on his products. Lisa, the evolution of Apple II, would be a crossover that would be a new class of equipment before Lisa and Macintosh.

For followers of Apple II, Steve Jobs wanted an even more advanced machine to contribute to the business computing market. Engineers had to stick to very ambitious and sometimes almost unattainable goals, especially considering that the development time of this machine was short.

Although his sales were stronger than ever, he thought these would start falling soon, so it would be necessary to present his product as soon as possible.

The computer was finally introduced in May 1980 under the name AppleIII. Unfortunately, it caused overheating due to some technical problems, such as the lack of a fan between them.

Thousands of AppleIII had to be replaced. A few months later, in November 1981, it released a new version that fixed all major issues in its first release. In addition, a III + version appeared in 1983.

However, the problems at the beginning deterred the buyers and it was AppleIII’s first major commercial failure.

By the end of the summer, only 65,000 computers were sold, planning to sell millions like the AppleII. The teams that came out in the following years were called AppleII to forget about the wrong adventures of AppleIII.

Despite AppleIII’s failure, it still had two models to improve: Lisa and Macintosh.

Apple’s big bet was Lisa, who would have next-generation computers and was also designed to attack the job market that was rejected with AppleIII and still covered by the IBM PC. Macintosh was a project launched by Jef Raskin to build a very cheap and easy-to-use small computer designed for the domestic market.

As mentioned earlier, Lisa was meant to be the next generation of computers, and there was no cost to achieve this. The final model included a monitor, two floppy drives, 5 Megabyte hard drive, and full megabyte RAM.

However, it was not all of these features that were displayed for the first time, but the new icon-based user interface, which was activated by pointing an arrow controlled by a curious device called a mouse.

During Lisa’s development, after the advice of people like Jef Raskin and Bill Atkinson, Steve Jobs decided to negotiate an agreement involving visiting Xerox laboratories for a million-dollar stake when listed with Xerox PARC.

After this visit in December 1979, Jobs realized that the future would be on these machines with a graphical interface, so Lisa’s entire computer interface was re-modeled to adapt it to new ideas seen on Xerox PARC.

On December 12, 1980, Apple went public. Until then, only a few of its employees had shares in the company.

Within minutes, 4.6 million shares were sold for $22 and instantly increased company’s capital to $100 million. At the same time, tens of employees became millionaires.

Despite the company’s economic success and its worldwide expansion, 1981 was a difficult year.

In addition to AppleIII’s problems, Mike Scott made shocking decisions to fire his employees.

The following month, Mike Scott, who was the head of the same liquidators this time, took over as director of Mike Markkula and Steve Jobs.

On August 12, the main threat to IBM PC, Apple’s hegemony, was released. Although not a very innovative machine, IBM’s brand image has garnered great appeal in the business industry and has achieved brilliant success.

Mike Markkula relieved Steve’s team from Steve Jobs and accused him of mishandling the team.

Finally, he started working on the Macintosh project. Lisa finally appeared in early 1983 and became the first personal computer with a graphical interface and mouse. Despite her revolutionary character, Lisa sold very badly, especially because of her high price of $ 10,000.

While suffering from the failures of AppleIII and Lisa, Mike Markkula resigned from management in 1983.

The President’s position was later proposed to Pepsi Vice President John Sculley.

At first, he refused the position; Steve Jobs asked him the deep question to persuade him: “Do you prefer the rest of your life to sell sugar juice or change the world?” John Sculley finally agreed and became company’s third President.


After the failure of AppleIII and Lisa, the company returned to Macintosh, the small project of Jef Raskin and then Steve Jobs.

After many lags and problems, especially after software that wasn’t ready until the end of time and after a very risky ad campaign, the computer was presented on January 24, 1984.

For half a million units sold by the end of the year, initial sales estimates seemed likely to happen in the first months of 1984, but sales slowed and caused panic at company.

Among the many reasons for the wear of Macintosh sales, we can highlight the high price, scarce RAM memory installed in the computer, the inclusion of a single disk drive, the lack of expansion ports, and the lack of software.

But not only did Macintosh sales decline, but AppleII, the company’s livelihood, began to show years of wear and tear.

Bringing together Lisa and Macintosh projects, they decided to develop the Lisa computer as a high-end Macintosh.

However, this merger did nothing but create tension inside Apple, because, on the one hand, the group responsible for AppleII was completely displaced, although it was the only economically profitable person, and on the other hand, Lisa and the Macintosh development group, as well as very different working philosophies, salary conditions and especially wages are sometimes deducted from employees.

The tense situation, however, also affected the top leadership that Steve Jobs was beginning to see as a time bomb to explode, and that had to be quickly disabled.

Greenpeace Problem

Greenpeace launched a campaign to stop Apple from using highly polluting materials abandoned by other major computer manufacturers. Now he has changed his policy and leads the company that uses the least toxic products.




  1. Mac Mini: It is intended for low-medium users. It is the smallest, cheapest, and least powerful of the Mac family. Mac Mini was introduced in January 2005.
  2. iMac: It is intended for medium-professional users. Its main feature is that all components of the computer are combined in an enclosure that includes the screen. iMac was introduced in 1998.
  3. Mac Pro: For professional users. It is the most powerful of all Macs and one of the most powerful available on the market. Mac Pro was introduced in August 2006.


  1. iPad: It targets low-medium type users. Introduced in January 2010, this computer is a 9.7 “touch screen computer.
  2. MacBook: It targets low-medium type users. It is the best selling and most popular laptop because of its small thickness and size. MacBook was introduced in 2006.
  3. MacBook Air: It is intended for medium professional users. It was introduced in January 2008 as an ultraportable device, the world’s thinnest computer.
  4. MacBook Pro: It is intended for professional users. Similar to MacBook, it only contains more power and performance. MacBook Pro was introduced in January 2006.


  1. Xserve: It is geared towards professionals and companies and includes powerful Intel Xeon processors.


It sells a wide variety of accessories for Mac computers that are compatible with computers with a different operating system. The most important accessories are:

Wireless (Wi-Fi) Stations (802.11n)

  1. Airport Express: It is a portable Wi-Fi station. Recommended for small floors or apartments. It is small and versatile for a comfortable movement.
  2. AirPort Extreme: It is a desktop Wi-Fi station. Recommended for large homes, offices or classrooms. It can create a high-speed Wi-Fi network.
  3. Time Capsule: It is a desktop Wi-Fi station and an external hard drive. Recommended for large homes, offices or classrooms. It can create a high-speed Wi-Fi network. It works with the Time Machine application of Mac OS Leopard.


  1. Wired Keyboard: It is company’s wired keyboard. It comes by default on Mac computers. It consists of an extra slim, standard keyboard and a numeric keyboard, as well as two high-speed USB ports.
  2. Wireless Keyboard: Uses Bluetooth wireless technology.


  1. Magic Mouse: It is a wireless mouse with Multi-Touch technology. It comes as the default mouse with all new iMac.
  2. Wired Mouse: It is a wired mouse, consisting of a touch-sensitive case, two pressure-sensitive switches, and a central sphere that allows you to move in all directions.
  3. Wireless Mouse: It consists of a touch-sensitive case, two pressure-sensitive switches, a central sphere that allows you to move in all directions, and a Bluetooth sensor on the back.


  1. LED Cinema Screen: It is the company’s 24-inch widescreen. It is an accessory for MacBook only. Its function is to expand its visual functionality.


On October 23, 2001, it introduced the iPod, a Digital Audio Player. This device has been developed to include a variety of models aimed at meeting the needs of different users.

As of April 9, 2007, iPod is the market leader in portable music players, with more than 100 million units. The company has partnered with Nike to promote the iPod Kit.

It sells four variants of iPod with downloadable media that provides music update and management services on the iTunes website and allows the purchase and download of this music in its original and fully legal versions:

  1. iPod Classic: It is a portable multimedia player released in 2001. It has 120GB and 160GB capacity.
  2. iPod Nano: The portable media player, released in 2005, is currently available in 8 and 16 GB models. Many models of this product have been sold in many versions.
  3. iPod Shuffle: The digital audio player, released in 2005, is available in 1, 2, and 4 GB models.
  4. iPod Touch: iPod touch, a portable multimedia player in its first version of 8 or 16 GB, released in September 2007; It features Bluetooth, touchscreen, motion sensor, volume control via two small side buttons, built-in speakers, and 16 or 32 GB versions.


At the Conference & Expo in January 2007, Macworld announced the long-awaited iPhone with Internet convergence for Steve Jobs, iPod, and Smartphone. iPhone combined the 2.5G Quad-Band GSM and EDGE mobile phone with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail, with features found on portable devices running older versions of Mac OS X. It also includes web-based and Dashboard applications such as Google Maps and Weather.

   Apple TV

At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs showed Apple TV, known as iTV, a video device aimed at linking the sale of iTunes content with HDTVs.

The device connects to the user’s TV and synchronizes with a computer’s iTunes library via Wi-Fi or a wired network from where the stream of information is broadcast. It originally included a 40 GB hard drive for storage, including HDMI and component connections, capable of playing videos at a maximum of 1080i resolution.

On May 31, 2007, a 160 GB disk drive model was released. On January 15, 2008, a software update was released that allowed the purchase of content directly from the TV.


Mac develops its own operating system to run on Mac OS X, the latest version is Mac OS X 10.5 Catalina.

It independently develops software titles for the Mac OS X operating system. It develops most of the software that comes with its computers.

Also, iTunes, QuickTime media player, and Safari browser are available as free downloads for both Mac OS X and Windows.

It also offers a wide range of professional software titles. The range of server software includes the Mac OS X Server operating system. Remote Desktop remote control, remote control application management systems; WebObjects, Java Web Application Server, and Xsan, a file system storage area network.

It has an aperture for RAW photo processing professionals for market creation professionals; Video production package Final Cut Studio; Logic, a comprehensive set of musical tools and Shake, an advanced effect composition program.

It also offers online services including email, groups, iDisk, backup, iSync, Learning Center, and online tutorials.

Criticisms and Discussions

   Software Limitations

It is known that the company reduces the possibilities of hardware and software products by taking advantage of its tradition and the fact that it has developed. Some examples of this are:


  • iPhone Bluetooth limitation without all possible profiles.
  • While the iPhone has no radio, it has a chip with FM radio capabilities. At first, this was suspected to improve the use of the music platform iTunes Music Store. They then rejected this theory and applied the service to new iPods.
  • Lack of video capture in the early versions of the iPhone, where the camera can record video.


Lack of 64-bit mod on technical Macs: Even if your processor can work with a 64-bit command set, you can’t run the system kernel in 64-bit mode on any Mac without EFI boot.

This can be resolved with software updates, so although the vast majority is capable, it leaves all Macs with an Intel processor sold from 2006 to 2008.

But since Mac OS X, version 10.4 can run coded apps compiled with 64-bit instructions locally and handle more than 4GB of RAM. And even then, it is still possible to run third-party operating systems like Microsoft Windows or GNU/Linux in 64-bit mode fully and without limitation.


In 2009, some application cases for the censored iPhone OS platform are always legally determined under App Store contracts.

The best-known case is Google apps and Google Voice service, which are pulled from the App Store after approval.

Having exclusive iPhone-specific distribution rights in the U.S., AT&T is believed to have pressure on the company because Voice offers a phone over the data network, thus preventing users from using the voice service and subsequent payments.

In late 2009, Google restarted Google Voice as a web page specifically designed for the iPhone web browser.

Company and User Relations

It was one of the few successful companies founded in the 1970s. He was one of the pioneers of the ordinary boss, who no longer wore a jacket and tie.

Other similar successful companies with cultural aspects from the same period are Southwest Airlines and Microsoft. Even if the company is in the Fortune 500 company rankings, it often went barefoot.

This feature has become a distinctive element of the company trying to separate itself from its competitors. The company has grown and managed by several chief executives who have their own ideas about what it should be and have an original character but have a reputation for promoting individuality and excellence. He created a scholarship program to get to know the best of his employees.

Company members, outstanding technical leaders or contributors to personal computers have been awarded to several people to date, including Scholarships Bill Atkinson, Steve Capps, Rod Holt, Alan Kay, Guy Kawasaki, Al Alcorn, Don Norman, and Steve Wozniak.

According to JD Power surveys, it has the highest buyback brand and loyalty of any computer equipment and components manufacturer.

Although this brand loyalty is considered unusual for any type of product, it does not seem to neglect the way it works. There was a time when their evangelists were safe by the company, but it was only after this phenomenon was already firmly determined.

Guy Kawasaki supported the presence of a network of Mac User Groups in the largest and many small Population centers with Mac computers.

Mac users come together at Expo and Macworld in San Francisco at fairs where it introduces new products to the industry and the public every year.

Mac developers are meeting at the Developers Conference, the annual worldwide assembly. Store openings can take thousands of people out of the house, the group waiting for the next day or event on the front in other countries.


Since the Macintosh was launched in 1984, it has been known for its effective advertising and marketing of its products, although it has been criticized for claims from newer campaigns, especially the Power Mac 2005 campaign.

The first logo, designed by Jobs and Wayne, represents Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree. However, the original design was not liked enough, so it was redesigned from Rob Janoff, which offers various monochrome logos based on the same apple.

The concept liked it, but Jobs insisted that the logo include Rainbow’s colors to emphasize the humanization of the company and the image quality of the Mac.

Although it is generally accepted that the logo is a reference to Isaac Newton, a curious urban legend guarantees that the apple bite paid tribute to the mathematician Alan Turing, who committed suicide by eating an apple poisoned with cyanide.

Other theories about motivation, such as the apple of information or the bite reference to the Computer Byte, were also discussed by the original designer Janoff.

In 1998, with the launch of the new iMac, it began using a monochrome logo due to the insistence of Jobs that have just returned to the company and are the same as the previous rainbow incarnation.

The logo is one of the world’s most recognized brand symbols, identifying all products and retail stores, and is included as a sticker on almost all Macintosh and Apple products.

In 2001, a monochrome design was replaced by a design that reflects the characteristic Aqua theme of Mac OS X. In 2003, the logo was subjected to another modification, acquiring a chrome effect to advertise the Mac OS X Panther and the rest of the product range.

In recent years, Apple’s ads have received harsh criticism from some industries for the way it disqualifies the competition.

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