What is IP (Internet Protocol)?

Internet Protocol or IP is a connectionless protocol used by both the starting point and the destination for data communication over a packet-switched network.

What is IP Protocol?

What is an IP (Internet Protocol)?

It is a series of network protocols on which the Internet is based and allows data transmission between computer networks. Sometimes, it is called a series of TCP/IP protocols, according to the two most important protocols that contain it.

The most commonly used protocols in this family are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). Other protocols used are as follows;

IP Protocol Characteristics

The IP protocol is the fundamental basis of the Internet. Moves datagrams from source to destination. The transfer level divides the data stream into datagrams. During its transmission, a datagram can be divided again into parts mounted on the target. The main features of this protocol are:

  • Connectionless protocol.
  • If necessary, smash the packages.
  • Addressing using 32-bit logical addresses.
  • If a packet is not received, it will remain on the network for a limited time.
  • It distributes the packages in the best way.
  • The maximum packet size is 65635 bytes.
  • Verification is done by adding only the package header, not the data it contains.

This protocol provides an unreliable, disconnected information packet distribution service. Connectionless routing means that the information packets to be broadcast on the network will be processed independently and will try different routes to achieve their goals. The term untrustworthy means that, more than anything, the package is not guaranteed to be received.

IP Functions

Data in a network is sent in blocks known as packets or datagrams. In particular, IP does not require any configuration before attempting to send a packet to another that a computer has not communicated with before.

IP provides an unreliable datagram service (also called the best effort; it does its best but guarantees little). IP does not provide any mechanism to determine whether a packet has reached its destination and provides only the security of its headers (via checksums or checksums), not data transmitted.

For example, by guaranteeing nothing related to receiving the package, it may be reproduced or come in another order compared to other packages. If reliability is required, it is provided by transport layer protocols such as TCP.

Suppose the information to be transferred (“datagrams”) exceeds the maximum “negotiated” size in the network section on which it will travel. In that case, it can be divided into smaller packets and reassembled as needed. Each of these trailers can follow a different path depending on how tight the routes are at any given time.

The IP headers decide the addresses of the source and destination machines (IP addresses), the packet switches (switches), and the network section where the packets will be transmitted by the routers (routers).

IP Classes

They are divided by the number of bytes representing the network.

A Class

In class A, the IP address represents the first-byte network.

The most crucial bit (the first bit on the left) is zero, meaning there are 2 7 (00000000 to 01111111) network probabilities with 128 probabilities. However, network 0 (bits of 00000000 values) is not available, and the number 127 is reserved to indicate its equipment.

Therefore, existing Class A networks range from to (the last bytes are zeros, indicating that this is not a computer but a network).

Binarily, a class A IP address looks like this:
0 > Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx

B Class

In a class B IP address, the first two bytes represent or indicate the network.

The first two bits are 1 and 0; This means that there are 214 (10,000,000,000,000 to 10,111,111,111,111) network probabilities, i.e., 16,384 possible networks. Existing Class B networks are, therefore, to networks.

In the binary file, a class B IP address looks like this:
10 > Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx

C Class

In a class C IP address, the first two bytes represent or indicate the network. The first three bits are 1.1 and 0; This means that there are 221 network possibilities, i.e., 2,097,152. Existing Class C networks are, therefore, to networks.

Binarily, a class C IP address looks like this:
110 > Xxxxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx


The purpose of dividing IP addresses into three classes A, B, and C is to make it easier to search for a device on the network. In fact, with this notation, it is possible to first search for the network that the person wants to access and then search for the equipment within that network. Therefore, assigning an IP address is done according to the size of the network.

IP Address Classes

Classification of IP Addresses

1) Public IP

It is the IP address that we define ourselves when connecting to other networks (Internet). Our ISP provider assigned this IP to us, and we have no control over it. In turn, it can be of two different types:

2) Static IP

Our fixed IP address is assigned. This type is rarely used and is of no interest to the home user, and ISP providers usually charge an additional fee for them.

3) Dynamic IP

It is widely used. While connecting to the network (Internet), our ISP provider assigns us an available address at the time. This address changes each time we disconnect and reconnect to the Internet.

4) Private IP

It is the IP address of each piece of equipment in our network (Introduction to Microcomputers | computer or any element connected via TCP/IP protocol).

Unlike public IP, private IP is assigned by us, but it can be automatically assigned (using DHCP). Basically, those included in RFC 1918 are used.

Advantages and Disadvantages of IP Addresses

IP Protocol is designed for routing and has very high reliability, making it suitable for large and medium-sized networks as well as business networks. It is used around the world to connect to the Internet and web servers. It supports standard tools to analyze network performance.

The only disadvantage is that it is more difficult to configure and maintain than NetBEUI or IPX/SPX; It is also a bit slower in networks with low average traffic volume. However, it can be faster on networks with heavy traffic that many frames should be directed to.

It is used in business networks such as university campuses and business complexes, in small or home networks, and even mobile phones and home automation, where they use many routers and connections to host UNIX computers.

Addressing and Routing

Perhaps the most complex structure of IP is addressing and routing. Addressing refers to how an address is assigned and how computer subnets are divided and grouped.

Routing consists of finding a route that connects one network to another, and although all teams execute it, it is mainly performed by routers. It is nothing more than computers that specialize in receiving and sending packets over different network interfaces, thus providing security options, redundancy of paths, and efficiency in using resources.

What is an IP Address?

A number that logically and hierarchically identifies the model of a device (usually a computer) in a network using Internet Protocol corresponding to the network level or level 3. reference OSI.

This number should not be confused with the MAC address, which is a physical number assigned to the card or network device (imposed by the manufacturer); however, the IP address can be changed.

These addresses can be expressed as decimal notation numbers: 32 bits of the address are divided into four octets. The decimal value of each octet can be between 0 and 255. The highest 8-bit binary number is 11111111, and these bits have right, left, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 decimals, and a total of 256 additions, 255 plus 0 (0000 0000).

In decimal IPv4 address expression, each octet is a unique character “.” It is separated by. Each of these octets can be between 0 and 255, with some exceptions. If there are any leading zeros can be ignored ( will be

It is common for a user who is connected to the Internet from home to use the IP address. This address may change when reconnecting, and the way to assign this address is called a dynamic address.

Websites that, by their nature, must be permanently connected usually have a fixed IP address, so it doesn’t change over time. Mail servers, DNS, public FTP, and web servers must have a fixed or static address because their location is facilitated.

Machines have an excellent facility to change numerical information and make it hierarchical, and it is highly efficient to do this and find addresses. However, people should use another notation that is easier to remember and use, As with URLs and DNS domain name resolution.


Routing in communication (sometimes known as routing or routing activism) is the mechanism by which information packets are sent from their sources to their final destination in a network by following a path or path in the network.

In an extensive network or a set of interconnected networks, the path to follow until it reaches the final destination can mean that it passes through many intermediate nodes.

What is associated with the routing is the concept of metrics, a measure of how “good” it is to use a particular path. The metric can be associated with different quantities: distance, cost, transmission delay, hop count, or even a combination of several amounts. If the metric delay is better, a path with a total delay less than the other is better.

The ideal in a network is to achieve optimum routing: having minimum distance paths (or cost or delay or magnitude depending on the metric). Routing is usually a function implemented on the 3rd layer (network layer) of the OSI reference model.

The Future

This protocol is a common element on the Internet today. The current and most popular network protocol is IPv4. IPv6 is the recommended successor of IPv4. Gradually, the Internet’s available addresses are running out. IPv6 uses 128-bit source and destination addresses, which are much more than addresses provided by 32-bit IPv4. Versions 0 through 3 are reserved or not used. It was used for the Experiment 5 protocol. Other figures are usually set for test protocols but are not expected.

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